Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
An ecosystem approach to discount 25 mg phenergan amex anxiety symptoms panic attacks health order cheap phenergan line venom separation anxiety, instead phenergan 25mg otc anxiety worksheets, works further upstream closer to the driver of the problem. The approach is preventative recognising that prevention is better than cure and, for wetlands, focussing at a landscape or catchment scale ensures maintenance of social and ecosystem services. This approach then seeks to establish the societal and environmental conditions for good health, bringing long-term savings for medical and veterinary costs and overall maximising benefits and minimising costs for wetland stakeholders, particularly those most likely to be affected by specific health issues. Managing disease within one sector without consideration of the others not only misses opportunities for improved health outcomes for more sectors, but importantly may result in negative health outcomes in other sectors, and feedback unintended consequences for the original sector in the long term. Seeing health as a property of a(n eco)system, allows for more effective and widespread outcomes. The One World One Health and Ecohealth movements arose due to the appreciation of this interdependence on, and connectivity between, health of humans, domestic livestock and wildlife and their social and ecological environment, understanding disease dynamics in broader contexts of sustainable agriculture, socio-economic development, environment protection and sustainability, and complex patterns of global change. A fundamental aspect of taking an ecosystem approach to health is that it is participatory with stakeholders understanding that they can create or solve problems relating to their health and that of their livestock and wider environment. Given the complex relationships between humans and other biodiversity, the complexities of resource use, including barriers to sustainable resource use, improved health outcomes are maximised when more stakeholders are on-board and engaged. This is not an easy accomplishment and processes that allow for genuine co-operation and mutual understanding of quite different organisational sectors is required. It is worth appreciating the consequences of not taking an ecosystem approach to health in wetlands. Wetlands as settings for lifestyles and livelihoods can deteriorate, and negatively affect health in this way. Activities which negatively affect wetland functions and services can create wetlands which actively pose health risks such as exposures to toxic materials and/or water-borne, or vector-borne diseases. Whilst steps can be taken to ameliorate these risks, the risks can increase (sometimes dramatically) if disruption to ecosystems, and the services they provide, continues. Current wetland management practices focussed at maintaining wetland function and wetland benefits usually also address disease prevention and control. However, there will be strategies for disease management that are additional to traditional management practices that once integrated, provide additional gains. Wetland managers are the key stakeholders in delivering healthy wetlands and, as such, all efforts should be made to integrate disease management thoroughly within wetland site management plans and other stakeholder activities at wetlands. Invasive alien species of flora and fauna are considered the second biggest threat after habitat loss and destruction to biodiversity worldwide, the greatest threat to fragile ecosystems such as islands, and are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater systems. Climate change may also exacerbate the spread of non-native species as warmer temperatures may allow currently benign non-native species to potentially extend their ranges and become invasive. Invasive species impact native species in a wide range of ways, including competition, predation, hybridisation, poisoning, habitat alteration and disease. With respect to the latter, invasive alien species can carry novel pathogens non-symptomatically, to which native species may have no natural immunity. Crayfish plague], and amphibian chytridiomycosis carried non-symptomatically by introduced species such as American Bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus causes population declines and plays a role in amphibian extinctions [>Section 4. There are many parallels between prevention and control of invasive alien species, and of infectious diseases, such as the proactive measures of: Risk analysis and assessment >Section 3. Communication, education, participation and awareness Training regarding management of those species >Section 3. In general, to apply the concept of wise use and maintain biodiversity and ecological function i. Although a good understanding of disease dynamics is needed for the most effective proactive disease control strategies, there are some basic generic principles which, if implemented, are likely to reduce risks of disease emergence. For example, strategies for biosecurity (including prevention of introduction of invasive alien species), reduction of stresses on hosts and environment, and prevention of pollution, will bring obvious health benefits. Table 2-1 provides a list of proactive practices for disease prevention and control and the locations of further information in Chapter 3. Practice Section of Manual for further information Healthy wetland management Wise use of wetlands Site-specific risk assessments >Section 3. Reactive strategies may include determining an evidence base, conducting surveillance, animal movement restrictions and instigating various other control measures. Reactive strategies for complete disease eradication may involve substantial intervention. With such a wide variety of wetland stakeholders, it is important to appreciate that there is the potential for differences in opinions over reactive disease control strategies and thus cross-cutting education, awareness raising and communication about these activities is advisable, particularly where rapid responses to disease emergence are required. Practice Section of Manual for further information Utilisation of multidisciplinary advisory groups in response to >Section 3. Their application is illustrated in the case studies throughout the Manual and in the Prevention and Control in Wetlands sections of the disease factsheets in Chapter 4. Wetland users do not need to become disease experts but communication and awareness raising programmes should aim to increase motivation to become engaged and do the right thing, with respect to disease management. This will likely only come from becoming informed about the problem, understanding the issues and implications, and participating in the solutions. Developing capacity to undertake disease management may involve formal education and training of key personnel. Communication networks of key wetland stakeholders, including disease control authorities, should be established in peacetime to facilitate rapid disease control responses should the need arise. This Manual aims to provide some of the information as a foundation for communication and public awareness programmes. The concept of One World One Health has arisen due to the appreciation of the fundamental connectivity in health of humans, domestic livestock and wildlife. Embracing an ecosystem approach to health in wetlands involves recognising the dependence of health and well-being on healthy wetlands which can only be achieved through wise use, most often at a landscape and/or catchment scale.
It is necessary to buy phenergan with a mastercard anxiety symptoms for days test the infectivity of Uve virus vaccines to buy cheap phenergan 25mg on line anxiety disorder enable adequate levels of virus to buy genuine phenergan online anxiety 9 dpo be administered. After 5-7 days incubation at 37?C the eggs are chilled and tested for the presence of haemagglutinin activity which is an indication of the presence of Uve virus. Ten doses of Uve vaccine are achninistered supraconjunctivaUy to each bird and the birds are then observed for 21 days. No chicken should show serious cUnical signs and none should die from causes attributable to the vaccine (9). For inactivated vaccines a double dose is administered by the recommended route to 10 3-week-old birds, and these are observed for 2 weeks for absence of clinical signs of disease. The importance of using a suitable chaUenge strain for assessment has been stressed (6). The method recommended (9) involves the vaccination of 20 birds at the minimum recommended age by the suggested route using the minimum recommended dose. The vaccine passes the test if at the end of 10 days 90% of the vaccinated chickens survive with no signs of disease but aU controls die within 6 days. It is not necessary to repeat the potency test on each batch if it has been shown that a representative batch of the final product from the master seed has passed the test. Accelerated stabiUty tests such as reduction of infectivity foUowing incubation at 37?C for 7 days (14) may be used as a guide to the storage capabiuties of a batch of live virus vaccine. Vaccination programmes the duration of immunity depends on the vaccination programme chosen. One of the most important considerations affecting vaccination programmes is the level of maternal immunity in young chicks which may vary considerably from farm to farm, batch to batch and among individual chicks. Either the birds are not vaccinated until 2-4 weeks of age when most of them will be susceptible, or birds are vaccinated at 1-day-old by conjunctival instillation or by the appUcation of a coarse spray. This wiU estabUsh active infection in some birds that will persist until maternal immunity has waned. It has been demonstrated that inactivated vaccines may also be usefuUy employed to vaccinate chicks which have a degree of maternal immunity at 1-day-old (8). Vaccination of fuUy susceptible birds at 1-day-old even with the most rmld of Uve vaccines may result in respiratory disease, especiaUy if common pathogenic bacteria are present in any number. Vaccination after 3 weeks of age is normaUy only practised in breeding hens and should be done at sufficiently frequent intervals to maintain an adequate immunity. Vaccination programmes often employ sUghtly more pathogenic Uve virus vaccines to boost immunity than those used initiaUy or when oU emulsion inactivated vaccines have been used. When devising a vaccination programme, consideration should be given to the type of vaccine used, the immune and disease status of the birds to be vaccinated and the level of protection required in relation to any possibihty of infection with field virus under local conditions (6). Two examples of vaccination programmes which may be used in different disease circumstances are listed here. For the first example, when the disease is mud and sporadic it is suggested that the foUowing order of vaccination be adopted: Uve Hitchner-B by conjunctival or spray1 administration at 1-day-old; Uve Hitchner-Bj or La Sota at 18-21 days of age in the drinking water; Uve La Sota in the drinking water at 10 weeks of age, and an inactivated oU emulsion vaccine at point of lay. For the second example, when the disease is severe and more widespread, the same protocol as above is adopted up to 21 days of age foUowed by revaccination at 35-42 days with Uve La Sota in the drinking water or as an aerosol; this revaccination is repeated at 10 weeks of age with an inactivated vaccine (or a mesogenic Uve vaccine) and again repeated at point of lay (6). An international reference Newcastle disease antiserum is avaUable as a lyophihsed chicken antiserum. It is intended for use as a control preparation in titrating a national or laboratory standard. Each vial contains 525 mg and an International Unit is defined as the amount of activity produced by 1 mg of the international standard. It is intended for the calibration of the potency of laboratory or national standards. Samples of blood can be collected by aspiration from the jugular vein of cadavers by syringes. All samples should be as fresh as possible and the animal should not have been treated previously with antibiotics. Investigation of wool, hides, bone-meal or other material suspected of containing anthrax spores requires preparation of these materials before culture or before animal inoculation. Growth on agar is arranged characteristically in long segmented chains of bacilli. Growth on tryptose agar enriched with 5% bovine blood at 37?C occurs in 8-12 hours in relatively pure culture. After incubation for 24-36 hours, the colonies appear rough and granular, with wisps of "medusa hair" extensions, possessing a butyrous or ground glass appearance. A rapid presumptive diagnosis on field specimens (blood or spleen) can be made by inoculating a Mueller-Hinton agar plate with suspect material, placing a 10-unit penicillin-sensitivity disc onto it and then placing a glass coverslip adjacent to the disc. Pathogenicity tests can be performed in guinea pigs, rabbits or mice by inoculating material subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. A Anthrax (Bl) 143 thermoprecipitation reaction (Ascoli test) is used in some parts of the world for anthrax diagnosis on decomposed cadavers. Requirements for biological products: Anthrax spore vaccines are used to immunise horses, cattle, sheep and goats. Annual revaccination is recommended, or every 6 months in more heavily infected areas. Its identification can be delayed by the normal bacterial flora found in the body orifices, or in soil, which may inhibit its development or overgrow it in culture. Exposure to the effects of putrefactive bacteria in an unopened carcass at temperatures greater than 25-30?C for as little as 48 hours will render the recovery of vegetative anthrax bacilli difficult. This is because the organism can neither sporulate nor continue to survive in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of an increased C0 concentration (18). It is safer practice to make air dried blood films immediately, and take a swab of blood or exudate for subsequent culture. A sample of blood is collected from a suspected case by syringe, and the tape inoculated with 3 to 5 drops.
Improvement in muscle tone occurred within two weeks with the peak effect generally seen within four to order phenergan 25 mg visa anxiety cat six weeks purchase 25 mg phenergan with visa anxiety from alcohol. In an open order 25mg phenergan with visa anxiety brain, non-controlled continuation study, most of the patients were reinjected after an interval of 12 to 16 weeks, when the effect on muscle tone had diminished. These patients received up to four injections with a maximal cumulative dose of 960 units over 54 weeks. If it is deemed appropriate by the treating physician, repeat doses may be administered, when the effect of a previous injection has diminished. A 25, 27 or 30 gauge needle may be used for superficial muscles, and a 22-gauge needle may be used for deeper musculature. For focal spasticity, localization of the involved muscles with electromyographic guidance or nerve stimulation techniques may be useful. In diplegia, the initial recommended total dose is 6 units/kg body weight divided between the affected limbs. Repeat doses should be administered when the clinical effect of a previous injection diminishes but not more frequently than every three months. The average duration of the therapeutic effect reported in an open-label clinical trial of 207 patients was 3. In this study, although the dose was 4 U/kg, the number of Units injected did not exceed 200 U. Chronic Migraine: the recommended dilution is 200 U/4 mL or 100 U/2 mL, with a final concentration of 5 U per 0. Injections should be divided across 7 specific head/neck muscle areas as specified in diagrams 1 4 and Table 4 below. A 1-inch needle may be needed in the neck region for patients with extremely thick neck muscles. With the exception of the procerus muscle, which should be injected at 1 site (midline), all muscles should be injected bilaterally with the minimum dose per muscle as indicated below, with half the number of injections sites administered to the left, and half to the right side of the head and neck (diagrams 1 4). If there is a predominant pain location(s), optional additional injections to one or both sides may be administered in up to 3 specific muscle groups (occipitalis, temporalis, and trapezius), up to the maximum dose per muscle as indicated in diagrams 5 7. Diagrams 5 7: Recommended muscle groups for optional additional injections for chronic migraine Bladder Dysfunction: Patients should not have urinary tract infection prior to treatment. Patients on anti-coagulant therapy need to be managed appropriately to decrease the risk of bleeding. Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity associated with a neurological condition: An intravesical instillation of diluted local anesthetic with or without sedation, or general anesthesia may be used prior to injection, per local site practice. The injection needle should be filled (primed) with approximately 1 mL prior to the start of injections (depending on the needle length) to remove any air. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 30 injections of 1 mL each (total volume of 30 mL) should be spaced approximately 1 cm apart (see Figure below). After the injections are given, the saline used for bladder wall visualization should be drained. If a local anesthetic instillation is performed, the bladder should be drained and irrigated with sterile saline before injection. The bladder should be instilled with enough saline to achieve adequate visualization for the injections, but over-distension should be avoided. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 20 injections of 0. For the final injection, approximately 1 mL of sterile normal saline should be injected so the full dose is delivered. After the injections are given, the saline used for bladder wall visualization should not be drained so that patients can demonstrate their ability to void prior to leaving the clinic. The patient should be observed for at least 30 minutes post-injection and until a spontaneous void has occurred. Patients should be considered for reinjection when the clinical effect of the previous injection has diminished (median duration in phase 3 clinical studies was 166 days [~24 weeks]), but no sooner than 3 months from the prior bladder injection. These may include inadequate dose selection, selection of inappropriate muscles for injection, muscles inaccessible to injection, underlying structural abnormalities such as muscle contractures or bone disorders, change in pattern of muscle involvement, patient perception of benefit compared with initial results, inappropriate storage or reconstitution, as well as neutralizing antibodies to botulinum toxin. A neutralizing antibody is defined as an antibody that inactivates the biological activity of the toxin. However, there have been patients who continued to respond to therapy and demonstrated presence of neutralizing antibodies; the proportion of patients which lose their response to botulinum toxin therapy and have demonstrable levels of neutralizing antibodies is small. The critical factors for neutralizing antibody production are the frequency and dose of injection. Some cervical dystonia patients acquired immunity to botulinum toxin when injected at two to three week intervals with doses exceeding 300 units in a 30 day period. To reduce the potential for neutralizing antibody formation, it is recommended that injection intervals should be no more frequent than two months. No patients among 496 chronic migraine patients with analyzed specimens showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Air bubbles in the syringe barrel are expelled and the syringe may be attached to the electromyographic injection needle, preferably a 1. Injection volume in excess of the intended dose is expelled through the needle into an appropriate waste container to assure patency of the needle and to confirm that there is no syringe-needle leakage. In the event of overdosage or injection error, additional information may be obtained by contacting Allergan, Inc. Excessive doses may produce local, or distant, generalized and profound neuromuscular paralysis. Should accidental injection or oral ingestion occur, or overdose be suspected, the 31 person should be medically monitored for up to several weeks for progressive signs or symptoms of muscular weakness, which could be local or distant from the site of injection that may include ptosis, diplopia, swallowing and speech disorders, generalized weakness or respiratory failure. These patients should be considered for further medical evaluation and appropriate medical therapy immediately instituted, which may include hospitalization.
Infection occurs when persons are exposed to order 25mg phenergan with visa anxiety symptoms in children free-swimming cercariae in contaminated bodies of water; cercariae can penetrate intact skin buy phenergan now anxiety children. Ingestion of fuke metacercariae and skin penetration by schistosome cercariae are the primary laboratory hazards purchase phenergan overnight anxiety 9 year old boy. Dissection or crushing of schistosome-infected snails may also result in exposure of skin or mucous membrane to cercariae-containing droplets. Additionally, metacercariae may be inadvertently transferred from hand to mouth by fngers or gloves, following contact with contaminated aquatic vegetation or aquaria. Long-sleeved laboratory coats or other protective garb should be worn when working in the immediate area of Agent Summary Statements: Parasitic Agents 189 aquaria or other water sources that may contain schistosome cercariae. Water from laboratory aquaria containing snails and cercariae should be decontaminated. Special Issues Treatment Highly effective medical treatment for most trematode infections exists. Cestode Parasites Cestode parasites of potential risk for laboratorians include Echinococcus spp. Humans serve as intermediate hosts and harbor the metacestode or larval stage, which produces a hydatid cyst. Hymenolepis nana, the dwarf tapeworm, is cosmopolitan in distribution and produces hymenolepiasis, or intestinal infection with the adult tapeworm. Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, causes both taeniasis (infection of the intestinal tract with the adult worm), and cysticercosis (infection of subcutaneous, intermuscular, and central nervous system with the metacestode stage or cysticercus). Occupational Infections No laboratory-acquired infections have been reported with any cestode parasite. Natural Modes of Infection the infectious stage of Echinococcus, Hymenolepis, and Taenia is the oncosphere contained within the egg. Hymenolepis nana is a one-host parasite and does not require an intermediate host; it is directly transmissible by ingestion of feces of infected humans or rodents. Canids, including dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, and jackals, are the defnitive hosts for E. Bush dogs and pacas serve as the defnitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, for E. Echinococcus oligarthrus uses wild felines, 190 Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories including cougar, jaguarondi, jaguar, ocelot, and pampas cat, as defnitive hosts and various rodents such as agoutis, pacas, spiny rats, and rabbits serve as intermediate hosts. People become infected when eggs shed by the defnitive host are accidentally ingested. Pigs are the usual intermediate host, becoming infected as they scavenge human feces containing eggs. Laboratory Safety and Containment Recommendations Infective eggs of Echinococcus spp. Accidental ingestion of infective eggs from these sources is the primary laboratory hazard. For those cestodes listed, the ingestion of a single infective egg from the feces of the defnitive host could potentially result in serious disease. Laboratory-acquired infections with cestodes could result in various clinical manifestations, depending upon the type of cestode. The severity and nature of the signs and symptoms depends upon the location of the cysts, their size, and condition (alive versus dead). Clinical manifestations of a liver cyst could include hepatosplenomegaly, right epigastric pain, and nausea, while a lung cyst may cause chest pain, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Cysts in the central nervous system may cause seizures and other neurologic symptoms. Immunocompromised persons working with these cestodes must take special care as the asexual multiplication of the larval stages of these parasites makes them especially dangerous to such persons. Gloves are recommended when there may be direct contact with feces or with surfaces contaminated with fresh feces of carnivores infected with Echinococcus spp. Agent Summary Statements: Parasitic Agents 191 Special Issues Treatment Highly effective medical treatment for most cestode infections exists. Nematode Parasites Nematode parasites that pose greatest occupational risk include the ascarids, especially Ascaris and Baylisascaris; hookworms, both human and animal; Strongyloides, both human and animal; Enterobius; and the human flariae, primarily Wuchereria and Brugia. Ascaris lumbricoides causes ascariasis and is known as the large intestinal roundworm of humans. Enterobius vermicularis, known as the human pinworm or seatworm, causes enterobiasis or oxyuriasis. Ancylostoma, Ascaris, and Strongyloides reside as adults in the small intestine of their natural hosts, whereas E. Allergic reactions to various antigenic components of human and animal ascarids. Laboratory-acquired infections with these nematodes can be asymptomatic, or can present with a range of clinical manifestations dependent upon the species and their location in host. Infection with hookworm of animal origin can result in cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption of the skin. Natural Modes of Infection Ancylostoma infection in dogs and cats is endemic worldwide. Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption occurs when infective larvae of animal hookworms, typically dog and 192 Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories cat hookworms, penetrate the skin and begin wandering. Ascaris lumbricoides infection is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Unembryonated eggs passed in the stool require two to three weeks to become infectious, and Ascaris eggs are very hardy in the environment. Enterobius vermicularis occurs worldwide, although infection tends to be more common in school-age children than adults, and in temperate than tropical regions. Pinworm infection is acquired by ingestion of infective eggs, most often on contaminated fngers following scratching of the perianal skin.
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High risk areas are the Mediterranean Basin (Portugal phenergan 25 mg on line symptoms 0f anxiety, Spain buy phenergan 25mg without prescription anxiety symptoms in males, Southern France buy phenergan canada anxiety symptoms 4-6, Italy, Greece, Turkey, North Africa), South and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. Direct contact with infected animals or with an environment that has been contaminated with birthing tissues or, most commonly, fluids from infected animals. Animals may lick those materials or the genital area of other animals or ingest the disease-causing organisms with contaminated food or water. Venereal transmission is the most common means of spread but the bacteria can also be found in milk, blood, urine and semen. Person-toperson transmission is very rare but has occurredthrough transplants, sexual intercourse, or from mother to child. Disinfection and sanitation Livestock the disease in livestock may be avoided by employing good sanitation and animal management practices. Detecting any infected animals in the population as early as possible through surveillance, and thoroughly investigating all suspect cases. Eliminating any confirmed infection found in livestock through the slaughter of infected and exposed animals. Wildlife Control of the infection in wildlife requires management at the ecosystem scale. Avoiding provision of artificial feeding grounds which concentrate susceptible animals (if existing, slowly phase-out). Avoiding test-and-slaughter programmes as these have not been shown to control the disease but have been shown to exacerbate spread. Vaccination may be possible on a wildlife-appropriate scale if well thought-out and modelled beforehand. Wearing protective clothing (gloves, masks) when handling reproductive tissues (assisting delivery of newborn animals). It can result in a negative perception of wildlife and increase exposure of wildlife to brucellosis (and additional diseases) through practices used to control movement. Effect on livestock Deaths are rare except in unborn animals, but the disease can be debilitating with obvious loss of productivity and welfare implications. It is an important human disease in many parts of the world especially in the Mediterranean countries of Europe, north and east Africa, the Middle East, south and central Asia and Central and South America and yet it is often unrecognised and unreported. The illness in humans is multisystemic and can result in economic losses due to the time lost from normal activities. Animal production & health paper guidelines for coordinated human and animal brucellosis surveillance (2003). The bacterium is found commonly in the intestines of healthy livestock and poultry but also in most species of wild mammals and birds, other wildlife and the environment, surviving in mud slurries and polluted water for up to three months. The prevalence of infection in animals is much higher than the incidence of disease. Humans usually contract the bacteria through the consumption and handling of contaminated meat and water but also through direct contact with infected animals and their faeces. Species affected Many species of domestic and wild animals including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, cats, poultry (including ducks and geese), wild birds, rodents and marine mammals. In humans, infections are particularly common in very young children in developing countries and young adults in developed countries. How is Campylobacter Direct contact with infected faeces, vaginal discharges and abortion transmitted to animals? Water courses can easily become contaminated from infected faeces of livestock and wild birds. Also transmitted through direct contact with infected animals and their faeces and may be spread through person to person contact if hygiene is poor. An outbreak may mean that many humans and animals are exposed to a common contaminated food item or water source. Faeces or blood cultures are used for isolating the bacteria in humans, and in mammals and birds, faeces, rectal swabs and/or caecal contents are required. Samples from dead cattle, sheep and pigs are collected from the intestines by aseptically opening the gut wall. Samples should ideally be transported to the laboratory the same day but if not, within two days. Samples must be protected from light and not kept in high (>20?C) or low (<0?C) temperatures. Good biosecurity will help protect captive animals from bacteria and prevent cross-contamination: Have disinfection facilities for hands, footwear, clothing, equipment and vehicles/trailers on entering or leaving areas with livestock and after contact with animals. Provide clean drinking water in separate watering tanks located away from potentially contaminated water bodies. Vaccination can prevent abortions in sheep and may be used as prophylaxis for bovine genital campylobacteriosis. Antibiotics may be used to treat some cases of enteritis and may also prevent sheep and cattle from aborting during an outbreak. Disease is largely uncommon in wild animals therefore control measures are limited. However, the prevalence of infection in animals is much higher than the incidence of disease and many infected mammals and birds may not show any signs at all. That said, it can occasionally cause mortality in both taxa and may be of greater importance in hosts with con-current disease or subject to other stressors. Some infections may cause infertility and spontaneous abortion in sheep and cattle.