Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
It is in the nature of prediction that people are focused on the particular future event about which they are making estimates purchase zovirax australia lavender antiviral, and it is in the nature of experience that people often are not focused on the particular event long after it has transpired purchase zovirax on line hiv infection latent stage. Naturally buy zovirax american express antiviral home remedy, then, the questions we asked Forecasters in the foregoing study (“How happy will you be in general some time after the negative event. Might the difference between these questions provide an artifactual explanation for the appearance of the durability bias in our studies. We do not believe so, because we do not consider this explanation to be either artifactual or necessary. Recall that we asked forecasters to predict how they would feelin general at some future time after an event had occurred, and nothow they would feel when asked about the event at some future time. If Forecasters overestimated the duration of their affective reactions because they failed to realize that they might not be thinking about the event at the future time, then their failure can be thought of as an instance of focalism. In other words, a Forecaster’s failure to consider how much less salient an event will be long after it has passed is most certainly not an artifact of the questions a psychologist asks, but is instead an interesting phenomenon that reflects a natural feature of prediction and that is accounted for quite nicely by our explanatory framework (Wilson, Wheatley, Meyers, Gilbert, & Axsom, 1998). More importantly, however, this interesting phenomenon may be a sufficient cause of the durability bias, but we do not believe it is a necessary cause. Rather, we suspect that even when experiencersare thinking about a negative event that happened in the past, the work performed by the psychological immune system often ensures that they will not feel as unhappy as Forecasters expected them to feel. To verify this suspicion, we asked Forecasters in the following study to make predictions about how unhappy they would feel a very short time after a very salient negative event had happened. We assumed that college students in a laboratory situation could be relied on to remember a salient negative event just a few minutes after it happened, and that such an event might even be more salient for those who had actually experienced it than for those who had merely made predictions about it. If the durability bias was observed under these conditions, it would be difficult to explain it by claiming that our questions had artificially focused Forecasters on a negative event about which Experiencers had long since forgotten. They completed a brief questionnaire that, among other things, asked them to report how happy they were at that moment on a 10-point scale anchored at the endpoints with the phrases “not very happy” and “very happy. Participants were told that university regulations required that anyone who participated in research that could benefit an extramural corporation must be paid $25 in addition to receiving experimental credit, but that because research funds were in short supply, the participant would have to undergo a brief screening procedure to determine if she was suitable for the job. Participants were told that the screening procedure involved answering a series of questions by speaking into a microphone that was ostensibly connected to a speaker in an adjoining room. Participants were given a list of 15 questions that they would be required to answer during the screening procedure, and were given ample time to study this list and prepare their answers. In addition, the questions shown to participants in this condition appeared to be only modestly relevant to the hiring decision, for example, “Why did you pick your major. Furthermore, each of the questions shown to participants in this condition included a few sentences that explained the relevance of the question for the hiring decision. So, for example, participants in the fair condition read: “We are looking to hire people who will be able to explain their thoughts and feelings on the products. These people generally can articulate clear reasons for their feelings and actions. Next, some participants (Forecasters) were asked to predict their affective reactions to being chosen or not chosen for the job, and the remaining participants (Nonforecasters) were not asked to make those forecasts. Specifically, Forecasters predicted how happy they would feel (a) immediately after learning that they had been chosen for the job, (b) immediately after learning that they had not been chosen for the job, (c) 10 minutes after learning that they had been chosen for the job, and (d) 10 minutes after learning that they had not been chosen for the job. All participants then completed a short questionnaire that, among other things, asked them to report their current happiness. The experimenter then explained that he or she needed to make some photocopies of the next questionnaire and would return in a few minutes. Ten minutes later, the experimenter returned with another questionnaire that, among other things, asked participants to report their current happiness once again. Analyses of the data revealed that the act of making a forecast did not influence the participants’ subsequent reports of their experiences, and thus we describe only the results from those participants who both made forecasts and reported their experiences. However – and this is most important – they felt quite different 10 minutes later. Specifically, after 10 minutes, participants in the unfair condition felt better than did dual-role participants in the fair condition. Apparently, participants did not realize how the basis of the decision would, over time, change their affective reaction to it. Affective Forecasts and Experiences of Participants in the Job Interview Study Note: Measures are changes from baseline. Furthermore, on some occasions, these overestimates seemed to occur because participants did not consider how readily they would “explain away” setbacks, tragedies, and failures once they happened. Although these studies demonstrate the existence of the durability bias and suggest one of its underlying causes, they raise many questions. The four studies described here revealed a durability bias in affective forecasts for negative events. Although the asymmetry between the positive and negative durability bias suggests that immune neglect may have played a role in producing the durability bias in the first three studies, other factors were undoubtedly at work in these studies too. For example, numerous events transpire in the month that follows an election or a tenure decisions, and the failure to consider those events when making affective forecasts (focalism) may well have played a role in Forecasters’ mispredictions (see Wilson et al. Because several mechanisms were operating at once and because we did not include design features that would uniquely implicate any one of them, the election and tenure studies established the durability bias as a phenomenon without isolating its causes. However, the job interview study did isolate causal mechanisms, and it is worth considering just what kinds of conclusions its results support. It is worth noting that this study was carefully designed to preclude the operation of misconstrual and focalism. We precluded misconstrual by making sure that Forecasters could imagine every detail of the event correctly.
- Onset of menstruation (menarche)
- Time it was swallowed
- Structural problems with the heart such as a septal defect
- Saying single words by 16 months
- Time it was swallowed
- Swelling, called generalized edema, from fluids held in the body
- Have a central sore surrounded by pale red rings, also called a "target", "iris", or "bulls-eye"
- Blurred vision
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Cabanes and colleagues also recommend a renal ultrasound scan for structural abnormalities and purchase zovirax 400mg on line over the counter antiviral meds, if hypertensive order 800mg zovirax with amex hiv infection, for renal artery stenosis along with measurement of urea and electrolytes (Cabanes buy line zovirax naproxen antiviral, et al. Women previously exposed to anthracyclines, high dose cyclophosphamide or mediastinal irradiation should have an D echocardiogram prior to pregnancy, and referral to a cardiologist if indicated. Induction of ovulation in idiopathic premature ovarian failure: a randomized double-blind trial. Life plans and family-building options for women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Conservation of fertility and oocyte genetics in a young woman with mosaic Turner syndrome. Ovarian and uterine characteristics after total body irradiation in childhood and adolescence: response to sex steroid replacement. Resumption of ovarian function and pregnancies in 358 patients with premature ovarian failure. Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group. Borgstrom B, Hreinsson J, Rasmussen C, Sheikhi M, Fried G, Keros V, Fridstrom M, Hovatta O. Fertility preservation in girls with turner syndrome: prognostic signs of the presence of ovarian follicles. Rates of aneuploidy in oocytes of older women: are equivocal findings of concern for postmenopausal embryo recipients. Anti mullerian hormone predicts menopause: a long-term follow-up study in normoovulatory women. Bryman I, Sylven L, Berntorp K, Innala E, Bergstrom I, Hanson C, Oxholm M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K. Recommendations for the management of patients with Turner syndrome before and during pregnancy. Restoration of ovarian activity and pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue: a review of 60 cases of reimplantation. Underlying causes and long-term survival in patients with initially unexplained cardiomyopathy. Anti-mullerian hormone as a predictor of time to menopause in late reproductive age women. Ovarian failure and reproductive outcomes after childhood cancer treatment: results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Low concentration of circulating antimullerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women: a prospective cohort study. Obstetric and neonatal outcome after oocyte donation in 106 women with Turner syndrome: a Nordic cohort study. Hippo signaling disruption and Akt stimulation of ovarian follicles for infertility treatment. Oocyte donation in women cured of cancer with bone marrow transplantation including total body irradiation in adolescence. The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure. Pregnancy outcomes in female childhood and adolescent cancer survivors: a linked cancer-birth registry analysis. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles. Hypertension in pregnancy: the management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Physiological sex steroid replacement in premature ovarian failure: randomized crossover trial of effect on uterine volume, endometrial thickness and blood flow, compared with a standard regimen. Prognosis of oocyte donation cycles: a prospective comparison of the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles of recipients who used shared oocytes versus those who used altruistic donors. Pregnancy outcomes after peripheral blood or bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective survey. Three hundred cycles of oocyte donation at the University of Southern California: assessing the effect of age and infertility diagnosis on pregnancy and implantation rates. Stillbirth and neonatal death in relation to radiation exposure before conception: a retrospective cohort study. Congenital anomalies in the children of cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Ovarian transplantation in a series of monozygotic twins discordant for ovarian failure. Obstetric and perinatal outcome after oocyte donation: comparison with in-vitro fertilization pregnancies. Antimullerian hormone as a predictor of natural fecundability in women aged 30-42 years. Effects of pretreatment with estrogens on ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins in women with premature ovarian failure: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A randomized, controlled trial of estradiol replacement therapy in women with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea. Clinical heart failure during pregnancy and delivery in a cohort of female childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines. Premature ovarian failure: a systematic review on therapeutic interventions to restore ovarian function and achieve pregnancy.
Friction order zovirax 800mg without prescription hiv infection symptoms in hindi, stress order zovirax pills in toronto antivirus scan, and hard-driving style are exemplified by the action of Al Dunlap order zovirax online pills antiviral therapy, a designated turnaround chief executive officer. Dunlap was given credit for turning around troubled American Can, Crown Zellenbach, and Scott Paper. One of his first meetings at Sunbeam was described as follows: “It was like a dog barking at you for hours. Al Dunlap was himself a stressor for many of the managers who wouldn’t tolerate his behavior and style. He practices yoga on a daily basis, plays his guitar with performers at company functions, tells jokes at company meetings, and tries to be approachable to his employees. Haraguchi believes a less stressful environment at the workplace is better for everyone, including himself. Organizational Culture Like individuals, organizations have distinct personalities. A tyrannical and autocratic executive team is able to create a culture that is filled with fear. Ernest Gallo is credited with being the stress pro ducer at Gallo Winery because of the culture he established with his hard-driving style, unrelenting insistence on superior performance, and low tolerance for failure. All too often, however, meaningful performance evaluation information is lacking, or the in formation is provided in a highly authoritarian or critical manner. Performance feedback information must be provided, and if it is to be provided in a way that minimizes stress, it must take place in an open two-way communication system. Inadequate Career Development Opportunities Career development opportunity stressors are those aspects of the organizational environ ment that influence a person’s perception of the quality of his or her career progress. Career 202 Part Two Behavior within Organizations: the Individual variables may serve as stressors when they become sources of concern, anxiety, or frustra tion. This can happen if an employee is concerned about real or imagined obsolescence, feels that promotion progress is inadequate, or is generally dissatisfied with the match between career aspirations and the current position. Downsizing Downsizing is primarily associated with the reduction of human resources, layoffs, attri tion, redeployment, or early retirement. Studies have shown, for example, that disability claims can increase as much as 70 percent in companies that have recently downsized. That is probably why many companies like Novell, Wachovia, and ReliaStar Bankers Security Life Insurance Co. Although the emphasis in the chapter is on work, nonwork stressors should not be ignored. Raising children, caring for elders, volunteering in the community, taking college courses, and balancing family and work life are stressful situations for numerous people. The distinction between work and nonwork is blurred, overlaps, and is signifi cant in any discussion or analysis of stress. As more consideration of nonwork versus work balance continues, it is likely that nonwork/ work interaction of stressors research is going to increase. For example, the individual who is attempting to balance her family needs, work requirements, and taking care of an elderly mother is likely to be faced with interactive stressors. Some effects, of course, are positive, such as self-motivation and stimulation to satisfy individual goals and objectives. Nonetheless, some stress consequences are disruptive, counterproductive, and even potentially danger ous. Research suggests, for example, that one of many factors influencing stress outcomes is type of employment. In one study, conducted at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, a sample of 2,010 employees was chosen for 23 occupations to examine the relationship between stress and consequences. The occupations were combined into four specific groups: skilled and unskilled blue-collar workers and professional and nonprofessional white-collar workers. Blue-collar workers reported the highest subjective effects, including job dissatisfaction; white-collar workers, the lowest. The unskilled workers reported the most boredom and apathy with their job conditions. They specifically identified a number of major stressors that created their psychological state: underutilization of skills and abilities, poor fit of the job with respect to desired amounts of responsibility, lack of participation, and ambiguity about the future. If you were a Japanese sponsibility to their companies, leads many workers to stay at the worker, however, you might be very serious. When they do go home, they are tense more than 40 percent of Japanese workers aged 30 to 60 be and anxious because they feel that they should really be back lieve they will die from the stress of overwork, what the at work. The victims of karoshi are known in As many as 10,000 men disappear a year, choosing to drop out their companies as moretsu shain (fanatical workers) and yoi rather than face the pressure of their jobs. In 2002, Kenichi Uchino, a Toyota government has funded a multimillion-dollar study of karoshi. During Some of Japan’s leading firms, such as Sony Corporation, each of the six months preceding his death, Kenichi worked have begun to require employees to take vacations whether more than 80 hours of overtime. Also, more companies are closing on Ichiro Oshima, an overworked employee of Dentsu, Japan’s Saturday, part of a national drive toward a five-day workweek. There are Traditions die hard in Japan, however, and no one believes many other cases of karoshi, and the incidence is on the rise fear of karoshi will disappear any time soon. In spite of recent revisions to the Japanese labor standard Sources: Adapted from Audrey H. Tsui, “Asian Wellness in Decline: law that reduced the length of the average workweek, Japanese A Cost of Rising Prosperity,” International Journal of Workplace Health Management 1, no. Kanai, “Karoshi (Work workers spend on average about six weeks (or about 250 hours to Death)” in Japan,” Journal of Business Ethics: Supplement 84 per year) more on the job than most Americans.
Move your index fnger in each of the four quadrants starting in the temporal feld followed by the nasal feld in same manner as you did on confrontation for both eyes order 400 mg zovirax with mastercard diferencia entre antiviral y vacuna. Remember that the nose and prominent eyebrows may partially block vision and mistakenly give a feld defcit 200mg zovirax amex latest hiv infection rates. Start behind the patient’s visual feld coming forward diagonally in a convex plane from all four quadrants at a 45 degree angle discount 400 mg zovirax mastercard hiv infection from undetectable, northeast to southwest and northwest 18 Part 1 – Clinical skills Neurological Examination Cranial nerve examination to southeast and the same in reverse asking the patient to indicate as soon as he sees the movement. The blind spot (optic nerve head) and any central feld defects can be easily identifed using red pin head moving in the horizontal plane from outside. Key points · patients are often unaware of loss of visual · peripheral visual felds are tested by perimetry felds examination · major visual feld loss is identifed by · main patterns of loss are homonymous confrontation & bitemporal hemianopia & monocular blindness Ocular fundi Ocular fundi are tested by fundoscopy. The aim of fundoscopy is to inspect the optic nerve head, arterioles, veins and retina. This is an important part of the neurological examination and is used mainly to exclude papilloedema or swelling of the optic nerve. Swelling of the optic disc may also be caused by infammation of the optic nerve and this is called papillitis. How to use an ophthalmoscope Students and young doctors at frst fnd fundoscopy difcult but the skill comes with training and practice. The most important thing to understand is the position of the optic nerve head within the feld of vision you are testing. The optic nerve head lays 15-20 degrees lateral to the point of fxation of the patient’s eyes and slightly below the horizontal and corresponds to the blind spot. Check the focus on the ophthalmoscope is set at zero and the light is bright, then sit opposite the patient and examine the right eye. With the ophthalmoscope in the right hand approach from the patient’s right side, look at the patient’s right eye from 30 cm away with the ophthalmoscope level or slightly below the patient’s eye about 15-20 degrees outside or lateral to the patient’s line of fxation or direction of gaze. Aim at the centre of the back of head and keep out of the line of sight of the other eye. You should be able to see the pupil as pink in colour; this is the normal retinal or red refex. Gradually move in towards the eye, encourage patient to continue to look or fxate at a point behind you straight ahead and bring ophthalmoscope to within 1-2 cm of the patient’s right eye. It’s important to keep patient’s eye, point of fxation and ophthalmoscope all on the same plane. Adjust the lens for focus so that you can see the blood vessels clearly and follow blood vessels as they get larger and converge on the disc. Look at the optic disc, blood vessels, retinal background and repeat for the other eye. The physiological optic cup from which the blood vessels emerge is a well defned depression in the centre of the nerve head. The rest of the fundus has an even red background because of blood in the choroid layer. The macula with a central darker area called fovea lies about one and a half disc spaces from the disc on its temporal side and is free of blood vessels. It can easily be found by asking the patient to look directly at the light of the ophthalmoscope. The arterioles are normally two thirds the sizes of veins and appear a brighter shade of red than veins. The veins on the disc appear to pulsate in 70-80% of normal people in the sitting position, and the absence of pulsation may be an early sign of papilloedema. In papilloedema the whole disc is usually pink red and the veins become distended and lose their pulsation. The optic cup is lost and the edge of the disc and the vessels emerging may appear elevated. Later the whole disc itself becomes indistinct and blurred especially on the nasal side which is normally less distinct and haemorrhages and exudates may be seen on or near its margins and vessels disappearing without an obvious optic disc (Chapter 12). Key points · approach patient’s right eye at same eye level · main sign of optic atrophy is a pale white optic from 30 cm out & 15-20 degrees laterally disc · identify red refex and follow beam of light · practise on colleagues and patients with into eye looking for a normal pale pink disc normal eyes · main sign of papilloedema is swelling of the optic disc with blurring of the disc margins Pupillary reactions Tese are examined after the optic nerve and before eye movements. The normal pupillary reactions include the light refex, the accommodation refex and the consensual refex. Assessing the pupils Inspect the pupils at rest for size and shape and whether they are equal, central and circular and react to light. It’s not always easy to assess pupillary size in a darkened room or in patients with a darkened iris. It helps to inspect the pupils at rest by shining a torch on the bridge of the patient’s nose allowing light to scatter but not afecting the pupils. Ten bring a bright light in from behind or from the side into the patient’s feld of vision and observe the eye for direct or ipsilateral pupillary constriction. Ten repeat this again in the same eye now looking for the same response in the other eye. The accommodation refex The accommodation refex has two components and is much less clinically important than the light refex. To test this refex ask the patient to look in the distance and then at the examiner’s fnger held 10 cm in front of the patient’s nose. As the gaze is shifted from a distant to near object the eyes adduct and pupils constrict. The frst component is convergence which requires adduction of both eyes at the same time.
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Tese diferent conceptual lenses have provided depth and breadth to purchase zovirax online now antiviral for herpes a number of critical debates among environmental sociologists about the most important and promising theoretical and research questions and about the place of environmental sociology within the discipline of sociology and the social sciences buy zovirax with a visa antiviral zona zoster. In the four decades since its founding purchase zovirax 200 mg overnight delivery hiv infection rate condom, environmental sociology has produced a substantive body of scholarship that highlights the motivations, behaviors, and organizing mechanisms underlying society’s relationship with nature and the physical world. The feld has provided important insights into comparative public opinion about the environment, difusion of environmental institutions around the world, efect of values on individual environmental behavior, role of culture in shaping environmental exploitation and regulation, social interests driving consumerism and high resource usage production systems, capacity of societies to learn and practice sustainability, environmental efects of local and global systems of resource extraction, social dimensions of environmental impact assessment, interaction of population, technology, and afuence on the environment, tradeofs between economic growth and environmental protection, mobilization and networking of environmental movements, unequal social and economic consequences of Sociological Perspectives on Global Climate Change 13 Part I: Sociological Analyses of the Causes of Global Climate Change environmental policies in local communities, and environmental implications of economic and political arrangements that characterize international relations and defne the relative places of peoples around the world. Despite its foundational focus on the human-natural nexus, environmental sociologists have only recently turned their research attention to global climate change. Tere is, however, a great deal that sociologists in general, and environmental sociologists specifcally, have learned that contributes to understanding the causes of global climate change, for example, which populations are most vulnerable and resilient to the impacts of climate change, and what is the role of competition among states in the global system to accelerating the drivers of global climate change. Central to these sociological analyses is the knowledge that purely technological “fxes,” absent consideration of social factors, will not be sufcient to mitigate or successfully adapt to global climate change. The research areas listed below represent some of the major theoretical and methodological strategies used by sociologists to better understand the relationship between humans and their natural world and to identify the ecologically-relevant features of modern industrial nations and their impact on global climate change. Each section contains both a summary of sociological analyses of the social causes of global climate change and promising areas for investigation and questions for future research. Political Economy: One of sociology’s most signifcant contributions to climate change research arises out of attention to the intersecting political and economic orders, at both global and national levels, as contributors and potential mitigators of global climate change. Like all social scientifc approaches, political economy research acknowledges that climate change is not merely rooted in planetary physical systems, often the main focus of natural scientists, politicians, and the general public. Building on social theories like Allan Schnaiberg’s “Treadmill of Production,”9 John Bellamy Foster’s “Metabolic Rift,”10 and Marina Fischer-Kowalski’s “Social Metabolism,”11 political economy analyses link carbon emissions and their efect on the global climate to economic and social organization in modern industrial societies. They highlight diferences among agrarian, lesser developed, and highly developed countries’ metabolic profles based on per capita consumption of materials and energy output. They also examine the implications of urbanization, industrialization, and the spread of consumer culture around the world. Environmental sociologists have examined the patterns and drivers of economic growth as they afect the environment, including cross-national research on the resource use, social metabolic levels, and environmental impacts of industrial and industrializing economies. They have evaluated hypotheses arising out of ecological modernization and world system models. The role of multi-national corporations in producing and responding to climate change (sometimes simply by “greenwashing” their products) has been well documented by environmental sociologists. Recent trends and areas for new global political economic research refect a qualitative shift toward understanding the assumptions about progress, notions of individual rights, the ethos of consumption, and defnitions of quality of life in modern industrialized societies. The human ecology perspective underscores the socio-spatial dynamics of climate change and varied interactions humans have with their physical environments across spatial and temporal scales. Drawing on work in geography and urban studies, sociologists have applied this “place-based approach” to research on migration, resource competition, and disaster relief. This perspective provides evidence that while climate change is a global threat, its efects are experienced locally, and can better be understood when sociologists include data from humans’ biophysical environments. Tese modeling techniques are directly applicable to the study of global climate change. Areas for future research include assessments of carbon trading schemes and the impact of economic development on environmental change in the twenty-frst century global system. Tese studies investigate the social dynamics of conspicuous consumption and status display coupled with the power of advertising to drive consumers to expand their consumption habits often without regard to either environmental consequences or personal fnancial cost. Less well-studied is the role of advertising and public relations frms in shaping and framing public perceptions of global climate change as a scientifcally credible or pressing social, economic, and political concern. This scholarship is relevant to sociological understandings of the causes of climate change in that it explores how publics defne climate change as a problem or not and view solutions to climate change as necessary and acceptable or not. Of particular importance here is the degree of public acceptance of natural science 12 See Broadbent, Dietz, Fischer-Kowalski, Hanley, Pulver, Rosa, and York papers in Appendix 3. Sociological Perspectives on Global Climate Change 15 Part I: Sociological Analyses of the Causes of Global Climate Change evidence as a guide to policy formation. Research on cultural and meaning systems assesses the attitudes, people, and organizations like the media, public relations frms, and political think tanks that shape public knowledge and opinions about global climate change, examines the social organization and rationales used by activists to promote and challenge scientifc claims, and documents how these groups exert their infuence to shape national agendas. Emerging work in this area asks, what are the social and psychological factors that cause individuals to internalize, react to, or deny the realities of global climate change. Strengthening research capacity to study these issues will be essential in programs designed to mitigate and adapt to climate change. This research examines the links between causes of and solutions to climate change; local, national, and international policies governing greenhouse gas production; the role of local, national, and international policies in allowing greenhouse gas production to escalate, stabilize, or decrease; cross-national comparisons of the social factors that afect political processes associated with climate change attitudes and policies; the efect of diferent institutions. This research gets at the heart of the relationship between the science of climate change and its translation into public understanding and policy formation. Research on the social organization of climate change science and climate policy includes projects that identify features that make climate science and policy distinct from or similar to other science policy debates and implementation issues, explore the role of experts in governments and non-governmental organizations, and investigate the place of climate policy in changing individual and collective behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs about science and climate change. An important set of research questions are: What are the social processes by which the issue of global climate change emerged and evolved in public discourse. How do policy responses to global climate change work when analyzed in conjunction with the sociology of denial. How do the processes associated with climate public opinion and science policy compare across communities, geographic locales, or countries in the global system. An understanding of inequality is one of the most powerful tools that sociologists can bring to the study of global climate change. It is widely documented that the efects of global climate change will not be equally distributed around the world, and many of the countries least responsible for the rise in greenhouse gases will be most likely to feel its impacts in changes in weather, sea levels, human health costs, and economic hardships. Tese inequalities will be further exacerbated by the unequal burdens inficted by climate-related disasters and limited disaster response capacities. One important predicted outcome of climate change is human migration out of poorer regions and countries into more developed, less impacted areas; this environmental migration has the potential to strain the resources and social fabrics of receiving societies and deplete the human capital in sending communities. Variations in individual, community, and national vulnerability to the impacts of climate change are only part of the structure of inequality in global climate change. The quest for prosperity drives the rapid economic growth of large countries like China and India without whose cooperation, global mitigation eforts will fail.