Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
While the elitists controlled the process order rulide now, the democrats repeatedly called for measures to order rulide 150mg on-line disperse power among the people order rulide 150mg. Initially, the General Court, the legislature, moved slowly because it seemed unsure whether they even had the right to author a constitution. By the time it secured permission from the electorate to frame the government, elitists in the legislature wanted to draw out the constitution making in hopes of curbing the most radical ideas of the democrats in the state. To garner as much support as possible for the drafting process, the legislature temporarily expanded the electorate to all free adult males. A majority of towns approved the proposal, though some dissenting towns thought a special constitutional convention should be called and others wanted more than just inspection of the new constitution. To address the concerns of the towns, the legislature agreed to hold new elections for the General Court before work on the draft began, allowing the voters to choose the people from their town to work on the constitution. Finally, in the summer the newly elected Generally Court selected a drafting committee. The elitists won a bicameral legislature with strict property qualifcations on who could serve; the democrats won taxpayer suffrage for the lower house but not for the upper house and the governor. In 1778, the drafting committee completed its work, and the legislature submitted the constitution to the voters for approval. Four out of fve towns rejected the proposed constitution, with many towns voting unanimously against it. Frustrated elitists, after eight months of stalling, concluded they had no choice but to propose a separate constitutional convention because the state’s economic problems continued to grow worse and the sitting government had lost much of its legitimacy. At that point, John Adams returned to Massachusetts from Paris where he had been working on securing an alliance with France. The drafting committee, which he was not chosen to serve on, asked him to draw up the frst draft of the new constitution. He began with a declaration of rights but proceeded to create a government strikingly similar to the colonial system in terms of providing for a bicameral legislature and a powerful governor. Adams also eliminated the provision for taxpayer suffrage for the lower house; all voters had to own property. Moreover, he increased the property Page | 391 Chapter NiNe: artiCles of CoNfederatioN aNd the CoNstitutioN qualifcation for running for the upper house and for governor. Since the constitution clearly tilted toward the elitists, Adams suggested that all free adult males vote in a referendum on the constitution. In so doing, if the document passed, then the democrats could not legitimately complain about any perceived disenfranchisement. In 1780, the delegates declared that two-thirds of the voters approved the constitution; shortly thereafter, it took effect. Nevertheless, social divisions caused by objections to representation in the legislature plagued Massachusetts throughout the 1780s. Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia continued the colonial practice of denying free blacks the right to vote, but, in the other states, the constitutions did not distinguish between free blacks and free whites. No state considered letting slaves, servants, felons, or the mentally disabled vote. Revolutionary fervor, however, did cause some Americans to question whether women should have the right to vote. Although political leaders around the country discussed the issue, only New Jersey went so far as to allow single women suffrage. The Essex Result, likely written by Theophilus Parsons of Massachusetts, suggested women did not possess the discretion to vote because of the “natural tenderness and delicacy of their minds, their retired mode of life, and various domestic duties. Married women could not own property nor did they pay taxes; therefore, in many states they did not meet the qualifcations for voting. Virginian Hannah Corbin suggested to her brother Richard Henry Lee, a member of the Continental Congress, that single women should either possess the right to vote or should be exempt from paying taxes on their property; he privately agreed with her. While delegates to the constitutional convention mulled over voting rights, an anonymous New Jersey politician, made the same point. When the Continental Congress instructed the colonies to write constitutions, the expanded electorate in New Jersey selected delegates to the constitutional Page | 392 Chapter NiNe: artiCles of CoNfederatioN aNd the CoNstitutioN convention. The drafting committee initially suggested language granting all “freeholders and householdersworth ffty pounds” the right to vote. For over a year, delegates to the constitutional convention discussed voting rights, as evidenced by the changes in the suffrage clause from the initial to the fnal draft. According to the New Jersey Constitution, adopted in 1776, “All inhabitants of this Colonywho are worth ffty poundsclear estateand have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months immediately preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly; and also for all other public offcers, that shall be elected by the people of the county at large. Suffrage for single women in New Jersey ended in 1807 when the state revised its constitution. However, the fact women could and did vote under the original constitution set a precedent for ending the gendered division of Sidebar 9. More importantly, she suggested that when the delegates, including her husband, came together to write a new code of laws that they “would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. In his response, John noted “As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh. He would not have been able to serve in the Continental Congress if Abigail did not run the family farm, and all through his years of public service he relied on her for advice on a variety of political issues. However, in 1776 he could not conceive of a shift in the public role of women in American society and his attitude did not seem to bode well for the short term future of women’s rights. And yet, later that same year, New Jersey saw ft to allow at least some women the right to vote. Mary Beth Norton maintains “the constitution’s phraseology probably represented a simple oversight on the part of its framers” because the inclusion of women did not spark much debate in New Jersey. In other words, if the public had known about this “novel extension of the suffrage,” then they most surely would have discussed the issue more than they did.
In Trauma to rulide 150 mg low price the face can create orthodontic problems that older patients discount rulide 150 mg amex, there is an increasing risk that the impacted require immediate treatment buy rulide paypal. Even adolescents have a risk tized tooth occurs because the alveolar bone moves and that surgical exposure of a tooth will lead to ankylosis. In addition to possible root fractures and tooth, three principles should be followed: (1) the prog loss of pulp vitality, trauma to incisor teeth carries with it a nosis should be based on the extent of displacement and the significant risk of ankylosis. As a rule, the greater odontal ligament is obliterated during subsequent healing the displacement and the greater the trauma, the poorer so that cementum of the root fuses to bone, neither further the prognosis. Extraction of a severely impacted tooth and eruption nor orthodontic tooth movement will be possible. A, Cephalometric film showing marked posterior open bite; B, panoramic film showing failure of teeth to erupt de spite the lack of any obvious mechanical obstruction. Because their periodontal ligament is ab normal, the involved teeth cannot be moved orthodontically. Because of the risk of ankylosis, the reposition scope of general dental practice and can be of considerable ing should be completed within two weeks. This treatment importance in the management of adults with periodontal is discussed further in Chapter 14. If the traumatized teeth do become ankylosed, extraction followed by prosthetic replacement usually is the only choice. Comprehensive Treatment the one possible alternative, which often is not feasible, is a the same triage approach used for children applies to small segment osteotomy to reposition both the ankylosed adults for whom comprehensive orthodontic treatment is tooth and the adjacent alveolar bone (see Chapter 20). This contemplated: those with skeletal discrepancies should be procedure should not be done until growth is completed. Adjunctive procedures for adults can be de Orthodontic treatment for adults can be either compre fined as those aimed at improving a specific occlusal char hensive in scope or limited in its objectives (adjunctive to acteristic, as part of an overall treatment plan usually in other treatment). If a permanent first molar is extracted during typically involved and applied only to a specific part of the childhood, there is likely to be considerable mesial drift of arch. Comprehensive orthodontic treatment, in contrast, the second molar and distal drift of premolars in the suc nearly always involves a complete fixed appliance. Periodontal defects are likely to occur on It is an error in treatment planning to overlook ad the mesial of the tipped second molar and may also be junctive treatment because the patient does not wish found between separated premolar teeth on the distal of more comprehensive correction of malocclusion. If an implant is desired, other hand, the patient should receive a thorough evalu there is no choice but to orthodontically reposition the ation and should be informed of treatment possibilities, teeth. Even if a fixed bridge is planned, in most cases it is including comprehensive correction if a severe malocclu desirable to use a partial fixed appliance to upright the sion is present. As a general guideline (Figure 7-39), most mesially tipped second molar and reposition the premo adjunctive procedures for adults are appropriately in lars. This improves the periodontal situation for most pa cluded in general practice, while comprehensive treat tients (Figure 7-41) and also makes it possible to fabricate ment of adults is usually better handled by a specialist. Early loss of teeth other than the first Adjunctive treatment, including a detailed review of permanent molar is less common, but drift of other per treatment techniques, is discussed in Chapter 20. Special manent teeth will follow extraction of a tooth at any point considerations in comprehensive adult treatment are cov in the arch. This is true the second most common indication for repositioning even if the first molar space is nearly closed. The first is that it bly in patients with missing or malformed maxillary lateral is relatively easy to tip the second molar distally but much incisors. This condition often leads to spacing between the harder to upright the second molar by moving its roots maxillary central incisors, and the position of the maxillary mesially. The second reason is that if a long time has canines may also be abnormal (Figure 7-42). Adults with elapsed since the first molar was lost, there is almost always this problem are best treated with a fixed appliance, using considerable atrophy of the alveolar ridge in the area of the an arch wire with coil springs to open space for the missing original extraction site, producing a very narrow alveolar lateral incisors while simultaneously closing the central di ridge. Realignment of the teeth in other areas of the den close the space and bring the second molar into good con tal arch, should this be indicated, would be carried out in tact with the second premolar when this atrophy has oc the same way, using a fixed appliance to open space for the curred. Closing space is considerably more difficult and falls into the category of comprehensive treatment. Since the occlusion in adults of ten locks teeth into a crossbite relationship, it is necessary to disengage the teeth to make tooth movement possible. This can be done either by having the patient wear a bite plate of some type to prevent occlusal contact until the or thodontic tooth movement has been completed, or by oc clusal grinding to reduce interferences that would prevent the desired tooth movement. In some adults, it is desirable to rearrange spaced or flared incisors before bonding composite resins to improve dental esthetics. If there is adequate vertical clearance, re distributing space among the incisors is a straightforward procedure with a bonded fixed appliance (Figure 7-43). A, Before uprighting; B, after extraction of the third molar and uprighting of the second. Note the extent to which new bone has filled in on the mesial of the uprighted second molar and the upward extension of the bony attachment. When lateral incisors are missing and the canines have drifted mesially to partially close the space, there are two possibilities: (1) open the lateral incisor space, placing a pontic there; or (2) bring the canine mesially into the lateral incisor space, and use a pontic in the canine space. The decision as to which would be the better treatment is based on the position of the teeth initially. For this girl, the right canine was in its proper position, but the left canine was almost totally forward into the lateral incisor position at the be ginning of treatment. The midline diastema reflects the extra space in the upper arch caused by the small maxillary lateral incisors; C, redistribution of the space using a fixed appliance with coil springs on an archwire. Note the space has been created mesial and dis tal to the lateral incisors so that these teeth can be built up. The restoration should be done imme diately upon removal of the orthodontic appliance (the same day); D, completed restorations. Note the reduction of the initial overbite, which was necessary to close some of the space and gain ideal relationships.
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Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Clavel cheap rulide 150mg otc, Country/countries: No generic 150 mg rulide amex. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics 25 Basic design: Case 91) mm 1) Change in valve area: Leak: Tron cheap rulide online master card, et al. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Primary: Study the expanding. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics menthal, Age: 85 Major Kempfert, Setting: Surgical Size of catheter: 27 Fr Hemodynamic cardiovascular/ et al. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics endocarditis Excessive femoral, iliac or aortic atherosclerosis Grube, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Grube, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Hanzel, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Himbert, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Kapadia, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Lichten Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Marcheix, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Lopez de Age: 79 except complete transvenous Sa, et al. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics et al. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Schofer, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics aortic valve annulus Survival: diameter 20 mm At 30 days – 1 pt had died and 27 mm; of hemorrhagic stroke and sinotubular junction 1 had died as result of 43 mm; diameter of ischemic stroke which did iliac and femoral not appear to be related to arteries 6 mm; procedure contraindications to surgery because of concomitant comorbid conditions assessed and agreed to by both an independent cardiologist and a cardiovascular surgeon Exclusion criteria: Femoral, iliac, or aortic pathologies, aortic aneurysm, carotid or vertebral artery obstruction 70%, coagulopathies, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident within the previous month, severe tricuspid or mitral valvular regurgitation, left ventricular or atrial thrombus, uncontrolled atrial fibrillation, sepsis or active endocarditis, hypersensitivity or contraindications to any medication used in the study B-42 Evidence Table 2. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Ussia, Mule, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics cardiac surgeons. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics Wendt, Country/countries: No. Published studies of percutaneous heart valves (Questions 3-4) (continued) Study Study Patients Intervention Outcomes Adverse events Comments characteristics series status: expanding. Comparison of bioprosthesis and mechanical Transcatheter aortic valve intervention valves, a meta-analysis of randomised through the axillary artery for the treatment clinical trials [erratum appears in Cardiovasc of severe aortic stenosis. Meta-analysis of valve left ventricular systolic function after hemodynamics and left ventricular mass percutaneous heart valve implantation in regression for stentless versus stented aortic patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis valves. Novel with a mechanical valve or a bioprosthesis therapeutic aspects of percutaneous aortic using microsimulation. Eur J artery access for percutaneous aortic valve Cardiothorac Surg 2003;23(5):688-695; replacement. Comparison of Valve implantation on the beating heart: Carpentier-Edwards pericardial and catheter-assisted surgery for aortic stenosis. Percutaneous implantation of the first Percutaneous aortic valve implantation: repositionable aortic valve prosthesis in a early clinical experience and future patient with severe aortic stenosis. Transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in Successful percutaneous coronary valve implantation in a human. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement: first transfemoral implant in 30. Progress and current status of percutaneous aortic valve replacement: results of three 21. Circulation: prosthesis embolization after percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions 2008;1:167 aortic valve implantation. Percutaneous implantation of the CoreValve Early experience with percutaneous self-expanding valve prosthesis in high-risk transcatheter implantation of heart valve patients with aortic valve disease: the prosthesis for the treatment of end-stage Siegburg first-in-man study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv percutaneous heart valve: mid-term follow 2005;66(4):465-469. Dumonteil N, Marcheix B, Berthoumieu P, Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005;64(3):322 et al. Results of transfemoral or transapical aortic Cause of complete atrioventricular block valve implantation following a uniform after percutaneous aortic valve implantation: assessment in high-risk patients with aortic insights from a necropsy study. Percutaneous valve-in-valve procedure for Successful percutaneous management of left severe paravalvular regurgitation in aortic main trunk occlusion during percutaneous bioprosthesis. First human case of retrograde transcatheter Transapical transcatheter treatment of a implantation of an aortic valve prosthesis. Feasibility of complex coronary intervention Implantation of the CoreValve percutaneous in combination with percutaneous aortic aortic valve. Six hemodynamic performance after month outcome of transapical transcatheter percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. Surgical aspects of endovascular retrograde Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2008;72(2):143 implantation of the aortic CoreValve 148. Retrograde transarterial implantation of a nonmetallic aortic valve prosthesis in high surgical-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis: a first-in-man feasibility and safety study.
Off and on throughout his life buy rulide 150mg amex, he has had "flare-ups" of erythematous trusted 150mg rulide, scaling patches on his cheeks purchase rulide overnight delivery, chest and abdomen. She admits however that they are more successful in controlling his asthma that was diagnosed about one year ago. Common manifestations can include pruritus (which is universal), lichenification and linear cracking in those flexural areas, xerosis (dry flakey skin generally prior to the patchy outbreaks), periauricular fissures, cheilitis (inflammation and cracking of lips, particularly at the corners of the mouth), scalp dermatitis. Exact figures are lacking; however since there is not a strict method of defining the disease. There does seem to be some variation in rates from one ethnic or geographic area to another. Reported rates can run from greater than 20% in Scandinavian populations to less than 5% in east Africa. Some would offer the diagnostic criteria of: itchy skin (mandatory for the diagnosis) plus at least 3 of the following: 1) Involvement of the skin creases. Other objective tests useful in the diagnosis might include total IgG and increased IgE. Co-twin studies have shown a high concordance for the disease in identical twins over dizygotic twins. In addition, there is a strong relationship between atopic dermatitis and other allergic disease manifestations such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is hypothesized that an overwhelming T-cell activity which produces this aberrant lymphokine profile limits cellular immune response. Interestingly, house dust mite, cat dander, and certain pollens have been related to atopic dermatitis exacerbations. The question of food allergy is often posed by parents, but the connection to food allergies is less clear. Finding the specific food precipitant, however, is usually a time consuming and frustrating process. Having said this, the most common offending agents, when one is identified, are eggs, milk, seafood, nuts, wheat, and soy. Elimination diets may not in the end alter the natural course of atopic dermatitis. Eczematous reactions may not become apparent until several days after the ingestion. Although there is some dispute on the nomenclature, many authors would lump atopic dermatitis and seborrhea together in a group of eczematoid dermatitis. They stress that atopic dermatitis often occurs in individuals who had seborrheic dermatitis in infancy. Seborrhea has a much better prognosis, and usually resolves by six months of age, just when atopic dermatitis becomes more prevalent. There are patches of erythema which usually start on the scalp and move down over the face and cheeks. The rash itself is difficult to distinguish morphologically from atopic dermatitis. In older children, scabies can cause discrete areas of pruritus with papular erythema, but usually these show a predilection for the hands, feet, and genital areas. One will often find the tiny burrow wounds on close inspection (often in the web spaces between the fingers). As is the case with acne, the level of therapy should be tailored to the severity of the disease. Without a doubt, moisturizers hold a key role in providing a barrier to this drying. Emollients are best, but a very greasy product may not be well tolerated by older patients although they form the best barrier. Systemic antihistamines may help with pruritus, and the more sedating of these, such as hydroxyzine, seem to have the greatest effect, particularly in younger children to avoid bed time scratching. These should be started with 1% hydrocortisone, which is the mildest of the group. For more resistant cases, one will probably have to use fluorinated, high potency steroid preparations. Very occasionally, particularly severe, body wide exacerbations, may require short bursts of systemic steroids (1-3 mg/kg per day of oral prednisolone), which is often successful in improving the severe exacerbation within a few days. There is a concern of systemic absorption of topical steroids, but many studies have failed to show an actual adverse effect unless there was long term use. However, potent topical corticosteroids, if used repeatedly or over long term, can cause skin thinning and striae. Unlike corticosteroids, these can be safely used for long periods of time without the corticosteroid side effects of skin thinning and telangiectasia. There is an overproduction of oil on the scalp which combines with superficial exfoliated cells of epidermis to form the scales that are so prevalent. Oils therefore tend to worsen this condition so that moisturizers are actually contraindicated. Indeed, when parents, thinking that the scales indicate dry skin, rub oil into the scalp of their baby, the condition usually worsens. Parents should be instructed to shampoo the scalp with mild baby shampoo and gently try to remove the flakes and scales with their fingers.
The study described herein was conducted before the identification of Lgr5 and Nr2f2 as linage markers in the fetal ovary buy rulide 150 mg. As expected proven rulide 150mg, expression of Ddx4 was robust in the antibody-selected cell population at 12 purchase rulide 150mg otc. In addition, my project aimed to provide a methodology to handle and prioritise the outputs from transcriptomic screens and rare disease cohort studies. To do this, I developed an ex vivo gene knockdown strategy suitable for screening genes of interest for potential roles in organogenesis. This work aims to help us develop a greater understanding of the influence of the testis interstitium on gonadogenesis. In this project, in order to gain insight into the function of novel target genes in organogenesis, I developed a first-pass screening method that enables the knockdown of genes, singularly or in combination. This methodology can be used to assist in assessing whether or not performing a complex genetic loss-of-function experiment is likely to be informative and to prioritise candidates for functional validation. We anticipate that this relatively simple method will allow those in the field to dissect gene function during organogenesis more swiftly. In the fetal gonad, identifying which cell type/s express a novel gene-of-interest is a labour-intensive task (Svingen et al. Among the most important criteria for assessing whether a pathway is potentially functional in the system is demonstrating that a resident cell population is producing the secreted protein, expression of specific receptors in the surrounding cell population/s, and evidence that signaling activity is taking place in the cell or its neighbours. Although the genes encoding receptors associated with neuroactive ligand signaling are known to be essential for proper sexual development they have not been implicated previously in early testicular development. These data provide the ideal starting point from which to uncover signaling dynamics and design functional 170 studies to investigate the role of the various signaling pathways in gonadogenesis. Many of the neuropeptide factors involved in neuroendocrine development are also involved in mediating cellular function in the testis. This has led to an interest in so called “neuroendocrine gonadal peptides” which are produced locally by the testis and act as mediators of gonadal function. The role of neuroendocrine peptides in the adult testis and reproductive system is well established, but a role for these factors in fetal gonadogenesis has not been clearly established. In part this is due to the fact that most of the early work on neuroendocrine gonadal peptides was done in in vitro systems, and has not been followed up with work in in vivo systems. Nevertheless, this early work indicates that neuroendocrine components could operate in the fetal testis. It was argued that a fetal role was likely to exist for many of the neuroendocrine components that are essential for reproductive function later in life. My findings support this theory by demonstrating that there are a number of neuroendocrine components expressed in the developing testis. Functional validation of these novel genes will need to be investigated to assess whether they may play unappreciated roles early in gonadogenesis. I propose that mutations in these genes may have a role in fetal testis development and that mutation of these genes may therefore result in early masculinisation defects. This work highlights that the interstitium is a complex mix of cells that can affect testicular development and masculinisation during fetal development and beyond. Expression and functional validation will be needed to gain a clearer understanding of how the interstitium responds to cues and how different sub-populations gain identity. In addition, these results provide a methodology to tackle functional characterisation of genes of interest. Mice lacking alpha-synuclein display functional deficits in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Gonadal determination and adrenal development are regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1, in a dose-dependent manner. Sexually dimorphic development of mouse primordial germ cells: switching from oogenesis to spermatogenesis. Evidence that Sry is expressed in pre-Sertoli cells and Sertoli and granulosa cells have a common precursor. Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Endogenous Mouse Mis Gene Promoter: In Vivo Definition of Genetic Pathways of Vertebrate Sexual Development. Role of gonadotrophins in regulating numbers of Leydig and Sertoli cells during fetal and postnatal development in mice. A dosage sensitive locus at chromosome Xp21 is involved in male to female sex reversal. Redundant and differential roles of transcription factors gli1 and gli2 in the development of mouse fetal Leydig cells. Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in the mouse fetal ovary leads to ectopic appearance of fetal Leydig cells and female pseudohermaphroditism. Dynamic changes in fetal Leydig cell populations influence adult Leydig cell populations in mice. Integrin-alpha9 is required for fibronectin matrix assembly during lymphatic valve morphogenesis. Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing. Expression profiling of purified mouse gonadal somatic cells during the critical time window of sex determination reveals novel candidate genes for human sexual dysgenesis syndromes. Haploinsufficiency of Sox9 results in defective cartilage primordia and premature skeletal mineralization. Hedgehog and Bmp genes are coexpressed at many diverse sites of cell cell interaction in the mouse embryo. Differential requirement for steroidogenic factor-1 gene dosage in adrenal development versus endocrine function.