lhcqf logo 2016


Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.

Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.

  • Professor of Medicine
  • Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science


Other than genes purchase ditropan gastritis dietitian, the chemical compositions and other cell structure constituents such as proteins are among the attractive targets for specific measurements generic ditropan 2.5mg free shipping gastritis diet . Blotting and proteomics are two examples of fine measurement methods for assessing the protein composition of tissues buy discount ditropan 5mg line gastritis mayo clinic. A schematic presentation of work flow in a pathology laboratory is illustrated in ure 1. Performing autopsies, teaching pathology to medicine and other students and research activities are not displayed in this simplified schema. In many pathol ogy institutes, teaching and research activities constitute a large part of the work load. These changes result in a new steady state in which the cell molecular composition, microscopic appearance, or macroscopic features are different from the original ones. The microscopically and macroscopically detectable morphologic changes in reversible adaptation are usually of one of the following forms: 18 1 Clinical Pathology – Hypertrophy: Increase in the size of tissue due to an increase in the size or the number of constituting cells. Examples: heart muscle hypertrophy in blood hypertension and hypertrophied muscles in an athlete. Examples: Disuse atrophy of the limb muscle after long term immobility and endometrial atrophy in postmenopausal, women. Sometimes, the term atrophy is accompanied by an attribute to differentiate between its two major causes, that is, numerical atrophy (in apposite to hyperplasia) and simple atrophy (in apposite to hypertrophy). Examples: Endometrial hyperplasia in patients with estrogenic excess and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands in patients with chronic hypocalcemic states. Examples: Squamous metaplasia of the columnar epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and columnar metaplasia of the normal squamous epithelium of distal esophagus (Barrett’s esophagus) ure 1. It appears in two basic morphologic forms: – Tissue necrosis: Typical intravital form of cell death (cell death in a fixed tissue or autolytic changes in an unfixed tissue are not categorized as cell necrosis). Acute inflammation: An inflammatory response with sudden onset and short (usually 24–48 h) duration. The typical morphologic changes in an acutely inflamed tissue are vascular dilatation, blood congestion, intercellular edema, and acute inflammatory cell (neutrophilic) infiltration. Chronic inflammation: An inflammatory response of longer duration (on the order of days). The typical morphologic features that differentiate the chronic from acute inflammation are more pronounced tissue destruction, beginning of tissue fibrosis, and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages). This type of change is called apocrine plasm, a relatively small nucleus, and promi metaplasia and is characteristic of the fibro nent basophilic nucleolus. Granuloma: A typical structure representative of a typical form of chronic inflam mation (e. Other usually present components are a central area of necrosis (typical for tuberculosis granulomas), multin ucleated giant cells (dispersed in between histiocytes), and peripheral layer of lympho-plasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis. Examples: Specific forms of infections (tuberculosis and mycotic infections), reaction to foreign bodies, and autoimmune diseases (sarcoidosis) ure 1. From center to arrangement of nuclei, which is a charac periphery, we can recognize a central area teristic feature of Langhans-type giant cells of necrosis, layers of epithelioid histiocytes, (b). The combination of these two features lymphocytic inflammatory cells infiltration, (central caseating necrosis and Langhans and reactive fibrosis (a). In between the type giant cells) is highly suggestive of an epithelioid histiocytes, there are scattered infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has to be differentiated from reactive hyperplasia in which the proliferation is usually dependent on a stimulatory factor. A neoplasm usually leads to the formation of a tumor (a mass lesion that can be differentiated from the background organ tissue by its different consistency, appearance, or shape). Tumor differentiation: In tumor pathology, the term differentiation is usually used to define the ‘‘level of differentiation’’ which signifies the level of morphologic similarity of the constituting tumor cells with the normal cells of counterpart tissue. Anaplasia is used to define the level of dis similarity of tumor cells with presumed normal counterparts. Morphologically, at the microscopic level most anaplastic tumors, regardless of the tissue of origin, are similar to each other. It is very hard to recognize the tissue of origin of an undifferen tiated anaplastic tumor when microscopic examination is the only method of evaluation. That means that it is hard to define whether this tumor is a carcinoma (a malignant tumor with epithelial differentiation/origin), a sarcoma (a malignant tumor with mesenchymal differentiation/origin), or even a lymphoma (a malignant tumor with lymphoid differentiation/origin). Tumor grade (of malignancy): A concept providing a scale of the level of aggressive ness of a tumor and its potential for lymph node or distant organ metastasis. One of the most important parameters in defining the grade of malignancy of a tumor is the ‘‘level of differentiation. For most malignant tumors, a three-tiered grading system is applicable, for example, G1 = low grade of malignancy ∼ high differentiation; G2 = medium grade of malignancy ∼ moderate differentiation; and G3 = high grade of malignancy ∼ low/poor tumor differentiation. In these cases, the ‘‘level of differ entiation’’ is very low and the line of differentiation during routine microscopic examination will be uncertain. Benign tumors: They are well-differentiated tumors with little, if any, anaplasia. That in turn let the host tissue to react to this new growth and produce a fibrous wall. For example, hemangiomas are benign neoplasms of vascular tissue that have no regular boundaries and no fibrous capsule. Most benign tumors are named by addition of the suffix ‘‘-oma’’ at the end of the tissue name. Examples: Lipoma (benign tumors of adipose tissue) or leiomyoma (benign tumors of smooth muscle tissue). Adenoma is the name of benign neoplastic proliferations originating from a glandular tissue or with glandular differentiation.

Besides the changes of hyaline sclerosis cheap ditropan 2.5mg otc gastritis diet 7 up, the changes of necrotising arteriolitis include fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall purchase generic ditropan line gastritis diet mango, acute inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils in the adventitia generic 5 mg ditropan amex eosinophilic gastritis symptoms. Since necrotising arteriolitis occurs in vessels in which there is sudden and great elevation of pressure, the changes are said to result from direct physical injury to the vessel wall. The condition occurs as an age-related degenerative process, and therefore, an example of dystrophic calcification, and has little or no clinical significance. However, medial calcification also occurs in some pathological states like Figure 15. These are further considered under 2 393 headings: Definition A) Major risk factors modifiable by life style and/or therapy: This Atherosclerosis is a specific form of arteriosclerosis affecting includes major risk factors which can be controlled by primarily the intima of large and medium-sized muscular modifying life style and/or by pharmacotherapy and arteries and is characterised by fibrofatty plaques or includes: dyslipidaemias, hypertension, diabetes mellitus atheromas. This includes a Though any large and medium-sized artery may be involved host of factors whose role in atherosclerosis is minimal, and in atherosclerosis, the most commonly affected are the aorta, in some cases, even uncertain. Therefore, the major clinical syndromes resulting from ischaemia due to Apparently, a combination of etiologic risk factors have atherosclerosis pertain to the heart (angina and myocardial additive effect in producing the lesions of atherosclerosis. Virchow in 19th century first Atherosclerosis is widely prevalent in industrialised coun identified cholesterol crystals in the atherosclerotic lesions. However, majority of the data on etiology are based Since then, extensive information on lipoproteins and their on the animal experimental work and epidemiological role in atherosclerotic lesions has been gathered. The incidences for atherosclerosis quoted in the Abnormalities in plasma lipoproteins have been firmly literature are based on the major clinical syndromes established as the most important major risk factor for produced by it, the most important interpretation being that atherosclerosis. It has been firmly established that hyper death from myocardial infarction is related to underlying cholesterolaemia has directly proportionate relationship with atherosclerosis. It is estimated that cholesterol esters, largely derived from the lipoproteins in by the year 2020, cardiovascular disease, mainly the blood. Often, they are acting in combination rather causes such as in diabetes mellitus, myxoedema, nephrotic than singly. These risk factors are divided into two groups syndrome, von Gierke’s disease, xanthomatosis and familial (Table 15. Diabetes mellitus ciency, oral contraceptives the concentrations of different lipoproteins in the serum. Physical inactivity lipoproteins are divided into classes according to the density B) Constitutional 5. Chylomicrons Liver, intestine, macrophage — Indirect different apoproteins being named by letter A, B, C, D etc down, while the other good plasma lipoprotein (i. Hypertension is a risk factor for all 140-200 mg/dl, while levels of borderline high are considered clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. An elevation of total serum doubles the risk of all forms of cardiovascular disease. It acts cholesterol levels above 260 mg/dl in men and women probably by mechanical injury to the arterial wall due to between 30 and 50 years of age has three times higher risk of increased blood pressure. The extent and severity of atherosclerosis cholesterol and has the maximum association with athero are much greater in smokers than in non-smokers. Clinical manifestations of produced by artificial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats) atherosclerosis are far more common and develop at an early which raise the plasma cholesterol level. On the contrary, characterised by metabolic (insulin resistance) syndrome and a diet low in saturated fats and high in poly-unsaturated fats abnormal lipid profile termed ‘diabetic dyslipidaemia’ is and having omega-3 fatty acids (e. Age, sex and genetic influences do affect the appearance of Currently, management of dyslipidaemia is directed at lesions of atherosclerosis. Thus presently, preferred term for early lesions of atherosclerosis may be present in childhood, hyperlipidaemia is dyslipidaemia because one risky plasma clinically significant lesions are found with increasing age. The incidence and severity of atherosclerosis are more in men than in women and the changes appear a decade Pathogenesis earlier in men (>45 years) than in women (>55 years). The concept hypothesised by oestrogen and high-density lipoproteins, both of which have Virchow in 1856 that atherosclerosis is a form of cellular anti-atherogenic influence. Genetic factors play a significant imbibing of lipids from the blood came to be called the ‘lipid role in atherogenesis. Modified form of this theory is currently known as lipoprotein metabolism predispose the individual to high ‘response to injury hypothesis’ and is now-a-days the most blood lipid level and familial hypercholesterolaemia. Racial differences too exist; Blacks have generally leucocytes, was named as ‘encrustation theory’ or ‘thrombogenic less severe atherosclerosis than Whites. Higher incidence of atherosclerosis in developed Though, there is no consensus regarding the origin and countries and low prevalence in underdeveloped countries, progression of lesion of atherosclerosis, the role of four key suggesting the role of environmental influences. Obesity, if the person is overweight by 20% or more, is the areas of disagreement exist in the mechanism and associated with increased risk. Physical inactivity and lack of exercise are associated with modified in 1986 and 1993 by Ross. Stressful life style, termed as ‘type A’ behaviour pattern, smooth muscle cells, postulated by Benditt and Benditt in characterised by aggressiveness, competitive drive, 1973. Patients with homocystinuria, an uncommon inborn error historical theories of atherosclerosis—the lipid theory of of metabolism, have been reported to have early Virchow and thrombogenic (encrustation) theory of atherosclerosis and coronay artery disease. Prothrombotic factors and elevated fibrinogen levels favour muscle cell proliferation so that the early lesions, according formation of thrombi which is the gravest complication of to this theory, consist of smooth muscle cells mainly. Role of infections, particularly of Chlamydia pneumoniae and sequently in 1993 implicates lipoprotein entry into the viruses such as herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus, has been intima as the initial event followed by lipid accumulation in found in coronary atherosclerotic lesions by causing the macrophages (foam cells now) which according to inflammation. Possibly, infections may be acting in modified theory, are believed to be the dominant cells in early combination with some other factors. The role of haemodynamic forces in causing endothelial injury is further supported by the distribution of atheromatous plaques at points of bifurcation or branching of blood vessels which are under greatest shear stress.

Order ditropan now. Cefixime tablet | use of cefixime | side effects of cefixime.

discount ditropan 5 mg with visa

Bountry (Elderflower). Ditropan.

  • Are there any interactions with medications?
  • What other names is Elderflower known by?
  • Treating sinusitis when taken with gentian root, verbena, cowslip flower, and sorrel.
  • Bronchitis, cold, flu, cough, laryngitis, diabetes, arthritis-like pain, constipation, and swelling (inflammation).
  • How does Elderflower work?

Source: http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=96694

Smoking cessation was defined as not smoking from week six and a carbon monoxide concentration < 10 ppm at all subsequent visits order genuine ditropan online gastritis symptoms with diarrhea. Smoking reduction and cessation are also presented with verification of carbon monoxide concentrations at each time point (point prevalence) purchase 5mg ditropan free shipping gastritis diet for. In respect of this purchase ditropan 5 mg online gastritis symptoms mayo clinic, there are essentially three groups of people involved in trials that can be blinded: • the subjects, who therefore do not know whether they are taking the intervention or control treatment; • the research team who are involved in data collection and analysis; • the staff carrying out the treatments and patient care, which may include at least some of the research team. You will encounter the terms, single blinding, double blinding (and triple blinding). These terms refer to blinding of one, two (or all three) of the groups described here. Make brief notes on the blinding applied to these three groups: subjects, researchers and health-care staff. List some of the reasons why you think blinding is important for each of these three groups. Drawing (if you wish) on your own field of interest, describe one intervention that could not easily be blinded. We also noted that it is necessary to obtain informed consent from the subject before randomisation occurs. In paper A, informed consent was obtained, and ethical approval gained from the university ethics committees. Trials, by their very nature, involve an experimental situation with something being done to the study subjects. This is very different from the study designs we have considered previously, which have involved observing the level of exposure in the past, now or in the future. Summary • Clarity about criteria for inclusion in (eligibility), and exclusion from, the trial is very important for those involved in carrying out the study and also for applying the results. All subjects must give informed consent before they are randomised to intervention or control groups. That is, we look at values for these variables before the intervention has been implemented according to the groups to which subjects were then randomised. We can see from this that the groups are very similar for most variables, although there are some differences – particularly in the percentages of men receiving each treatment (104/200 = 52 per cent placebo; 86/200 = 43 per cent active). These findings suggest that the placebo and intervention groups were similarly addicted and certainly the nicotine groups did not have any marked advantage. We will look at these findings in some more detail in the next exercise and consider what implications they might have for analysis of the trial. What hypothesis test would you use to assess whether this difference is likely to have arisen by chance? Can you think of any other issues that should be taken into account in making this assessment? First, some effort should be made to establish why this has happened – for example, is it just chance or can some systematic problem with the randomisation be identified? Assuming there are no concerns about serious bias in the randomisation process, allowance can be made for the imbalance by adjusting the intervention effect on the outcome by multiple regression (linear for continuous outcomes, logistic for categorical). For the current study, the (main) outcome is smoking reduction, a categorical variable which therefore requires logistic regression. The intervention will be entered in the model as a categorical explanatory variable: this has only two values of intervention and control, so dummy variables are not required. In addition, other explanatory variables which might be confounding the effect of the intervention (due to imbalance in randomisation) will be included, such as gender (categorical variable with two values: male/female), age when started smoking, and number of cigarettes smoked per day (both continuous variables). Adjustment was not carried out in the nicotine inhaler study, however, presumably because the authors did not feel that, overall, there was any important imbalance in the randomisation. Inclusion of this type of flow chart in reports is increasingly considered to be good practice, especially for cohort studies and trials where dropouts can be expected. Note that there were more withdrawals from the placebo group, particularly for the ‘not willing to participate’ category. If a substantial proportion of the sample is lost to follow-up, this could lead to bias, particularly if the extent and nature of these losses differ between intervention and control groups. Please now read the following excerpt that relates to treatment compliance and review Table 7. Corresponding figures after four, 12 and 18 months were 146/318 (46%), 39/331 (12%) and 30/289 (10%), respectively. Table 2 shows inhaler use and reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked and exhaled carbon monoxide concentration in daily users for both the active and the placebo groups. This means that the main analysis compares the outcomes for all subjects allocated to the inter vention group with all those allocated to the control group, no matter what their compliance with treatment was. To understand the reasons for this, it is useful to consider what might at first be thought of as a more efficient approach to the analysis by doing one of the following: • Exclude anyone from the analysis who did not comply with the treatment that they were originally allocated; or • Analyse the outcomes for intervention group subjects who stopped using the active inhaler as if they were controls (e. The problem is that the intervention group subjects who stop taking the treatment are unlikely to be representative of the whole intervention group. If these people are excluded, or analysed as controls, the two groups (intervention and control) will no longer be balanced for confounding factors, and this was the whole point of the randomisation. The same argument applies to studies in which controls who start the intervention treatment (for example, in a study where controls become ill and need to have additional treatment), as they too are unlikely to be representative of all controls. As noted above, this means carrying out the analysis with subjects in the group to which they were originally allocated, even if they are no longer complying with the treatment for that group. This avoids potentially serious bias and is regarded as the most appropriate method of analysis. This is unfortunate, but at least the effect detected is (a) if anything an underestimate of the true effect and (b) not biased by the non-compliers. Another important point about analysing in this way is that it gives a more realistic idea of the effect that the treatment will have in practice, allowing for the fact that some people will not be willing or able to comply with treatment as intended. To decide whether the intervention has any meaningful effect on the outcome, we need to measure the effect and then test whether the effect is statistically significant.

5 mg ditropan mastercard

Basophils are unusual in most fsh proteins and most of them are synthesized by the (Hine 1992) buy 2.5 mg ditropan with visa gastritis symptoms pain in back. The special granulocytic cell are poly liver cheap 5mg ditropan free shipping gastritis icd 9, however purchase ditropan online from canada gastritis symptoms list, they can also be synthesized by the morphonuclear cells found in the blood mainly brain and leukocytes. The C-reactive protein, serum in parasitized fsh or injected with infammatory amyloid A, transferrin, α-2 macroglobulin, C3 agents but their exact function is still unknown complement, lysozyme and lectins are commonly (Ranzani-Paiva 1996, Martins et al. The used for the diagnosis of diseases (Bayne and phagocytes described below play an important Gerwick 2001, Magnadottir et al. Phagocytosis is initiated by the connection molecules are glycoprotein receptors encoded by between the agent and the phagocyte receptor a gene complex, which are expressed in almost all membrane (Neumann et al. However, researchers have observed other Neutrophils migrate from the bloodstream immunoglobulins in some species of fish, such and macrophages are originated from blood as the IgD (Wilson et al. Anti hydrogen peroxidein order to produce hypochlorite toxins antibodies neutralize toxins produced that lead to the production of cloramins. All of these by countless bacteria (Gudmundsdottir and compounds are oxidative substances and can attack Magnadottir 1997). Anti-invasins antibodies microorganism membranes (Verlhac and Gabaudan avoid bacteria infiltration into unprotected cells 1997, Caipang et al. These immunostimulants, synthetic or antigen have been recognized by immunoglob biological extracts enhance the immune system by ulins receptor of B lymphocyte, it will stimulate increasing cellular and humoral production (Raa endocytosis and proliferation of memory B 1996, Sakai 1999, Fujimoto et al. In Brazil, intensive aquaculture has lead to outbreaks Macrophages play an important role in specifc of diseases with substantial damage in production immune response because of the phagocytosis and and economic losses (Biller et al. Macrophages also have misuse of antibiotics in order to reduce diseases has specifc receptors able to recognize β-glucan so lead to unsatisfactory results, since the prevention that the immunostimulants increase leukocytes and health restore after any chemical uses depends respiratory burst which releases reactive oxygen on the appropriate administration and interaction species, most of them with bactericidal activity with pathogens. Anderson (1992), as immunostimulants, probiotics and prebiotics Sahoo and Mukherjee (1999) and Sakai (1999) have to prevent and control diseases (Verschuere et al. Other per 100 g body weight injection (Macrogard ), or oligosaccharides have been used as prebiotics, 0. Over the last few stimulation and decreased mortality from oppor years several researchers have noted its ability to tunistic pathogens, promoting increased survival promote better growth rate, prevent colonization of in the treated groups, in addition to increasing the pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and immunological parameters such as the number increase survival rates in a wide variety of species. Garcia (2008) has sistema imune de peixes são fundamentais para o evaluated the homogeneity, growth performance, desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias e produtos intestinal structures morphology and the effciency para a melhoria da produtividade. Esta é a primeira of food supplementation with 0, 500, 1000 e revisão sobre o sistema imune de peixe ressaltando 2000 mg per kg/diet of mannan oligossacharide os estudos realizados no Brasil. Best results were found after administration anos, devido aos métodos de intensifcação da of 500 mg/kg in the diet of the compound during cultura. Entretanto estes procedimentos levaram at least 37 days for cage production due to its ao aparecimento de diversas enfermidades, bem improvement in protein utilization and greater como ao uso indiscriminado de quimioterápicos e integrity of the intestinal surface than the control antibióticos. In addition Falcon (2007) has also tested uso de fármacos e prevenir as perdas econômicas the administration of β-glucan (Macrogard®) for provocadas por diversos agentes etiológicos é tilapia and determined the best concentration o uso de imunoestimulantes e prebióticos, que and period of time in order to promote immune atuam aumentando as defesas inespecífcas de stimulation in this species. No Brasil os estudos sobre o sistema performance, hematologic and immune responses imune de peixes é escasso, mas alguns grupos of fsh were assessed, and revealed that 0. Brazilian fsh immune system is essential for pro Functions and disorders of the immune system. Suplementação alimentar de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887) com β 1,3 glicano: there is a possibility of promoting appropriate atividade respiratória de leucócitos, lisozima e estresse stimuli, such as immunostimulants and prebiotcs por captura. Tese de Doutorado,– Centro de Aqüicultura, administration in order to prevent losses during Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal. Immunostimulants, adjuvants and critical periods of cultivation and to avoid the misuse vaccine carriers in fsh: applications to aquaculture. A study of the immunochemistry of three secreting cells in the gut of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus yeast mannans. The acute phase response and cells in the gills, head kidney and peripheral blood innate immunity of fsh. Respostas fsio-patológicas e desafo and its alleviation by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and por Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu alimentado com mannanoligosaccharides. Development me’’ signals govern the innate immune response and tissue and function of the thymus in teleosts. Immunohistological localisation of trypsin in mucus Hematol Oncol Clinic North Am 11: 1115-1147. Tese de Doutorado, Centro de Aqüicultura, spleen cells of cod, Gadus morhua following incubation Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal. Nutritional (Colossoma macropomum) vacinados e desafados biotechnology in the feed and food industry: proceedings… com Aeromonas hydrophila: desempenho produtivo e Nottingham: Nottingham University Press, p. Cytological and morphological onto Aquicultura, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal. Suplementação alimentar com β-glucano e the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in zebrafsh: mananoligossacarídeo para tilápias do Nilo em tanques identifcation and expression of a previously unknown rede. Effector-target cell binding in a marine and a infection of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Discovery lymphocyte heterogeneity: the cellular requirements for in of a unique Ig heavy-chain isotype (IgT) in rainbow vitro antibody responses of channel catfsh leukocytes. J trout: implications for a distinctive B cell developmental Immunol 134: 2884-2888. The complement system of rainbow trout (Salmo resistance of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius gairdneri).

A step-by-step approach is a good way to organize the actual research activities ditropan 5mg mastercard gastritis location, though you may need to introduce times when reiteration takes place buy 5mg ditropan with mastercard chronic gastritis joint pain. All steps should be carried out under supervision and with the direct involvement of local actors and under supervision of the research group order generic ditropan line gastritis symptoms fever. More diffi cult, and sometimes even glossed over in the first proposal drafts, is the ways used to analyse the data collected. The analysis meth ods are less familiar and need to be learnt about, such as statistical analysis, coding and mapping etc. This is where you will need to consult research methods books to find out what the appropriate analytical methods are for your research. Preferably, the described process should be implemented in all main districts of Northern Uganda (Gulu, Amuru, Pader, and Karamoja). In order for the findings of your research to be noticed and used, it has to be disseminated in some way to those who will find it interesting or useful. When you devise this, it will become clear whether your ambitions match your resources! Apart from correct format ting, the main requirements are the accuracy and completeness of the information. The main issue when faced with such a task is how to structure the work so that it forms an integral whole. This structure will guide the reader as well as providing a framework to fill in as you are writing. In academic type writing, the aim is not to tell a story as one might in a novel, but to set up an argument to support a particular view. You will be trying to persuade the reader that what you have done is worthwhile and based on some kind of logical intellectual process. Whatever your subject, there must be a central issue that is being investigated which provides the focal point of the text. The body of the dissertation will then revolve around this focal point, perhaps considering it from different perspectives, or examining causes or finding explanations. These conclusions should be based on evidence, and a reasoned argument from this evidence leads to your conclusions. First you will need to pre pare a structure for the writing as soon as you are clear what you will be doing, probably after you have completed your proposal. The trick then is to gradually amass a collection of notes, observations and data on the issues relevant to your study, which you can then use as a basis for your first draft. At the very simplest level the divisions may be like this: x Introduction x Background and previous research x the main issues and research problem x Research methods – how you will investigate the problem x A description of the research actions and their results x Conclusions in relation to the research problem This is a conventional format and can be applied to a study in almost any subject. If you want to use an unusual structure or even want to develop your own, discuss this with your supervisor to check that it will be acceptable. How ever, you will need to know what number of words your assignment should contain in order to decide how long each section should be to get a balanced result. You don’t have to fill in your text starting from the beginning and proceeding to the end. Use what notes you have got so far and insert them where they are relevant within the framework. Although the text will be no more than a series of raw notes, com pletely unedited, disjointed and incomplete, it will provide you with a solid basis for working on to produce a first draft. Assuming that your framework gives you enough indication of what you are looking for, search through your notes by keyword or subject. If you do this on the computer, you will be shown a selection of relevant notes, from which you can choose what you think is suitable for that section. This is a quite demanding and creative process that requires a lot of clear thinking, perception and meticulous care to build up a logical argument. All the previous work will be devalued if you do not sufficiently draw out the impli cations of your analysis and capitalize on the insights that it affords. It really is up to you to vividly explain how the results of your analy sis provide evidence for new insight into your chosen subject, and respond to the particular research problem that you exposed at the beginning of the research. It is unlikely that the problem you have chosen is simple, with questions raised that can be answered with a simple yes or no. Throughout the analysis part of your work you should come to conclusions about these fragments of the main issues. The skill is to gather these up at the end in the conclud ing chapter to fit them together into a ‘mosaic’ that will present the complete picture of the conclusion to the entire research project. Just as you should be able to summarize the main problem that your project addresses in one or two sentences, so you should be able to state the conclusion equally briefly. This takes off the pres sure of getting everything right first time – something that is impos sible to do anyway. Once your work is on paper, then you can review it, get a second opinion on it, and discuss it. Regard the making of revisions to be an integral part of the process of doing a dissertation. The more general levels are concerned with getting the structure and sequence right. At a more detailed level, you might look at the sequence of paragraphs – does each concentrate on one point, do they follow each other in the right sequence? At the most detailed level you will be looking at grammar, punctuation, vocabulary and spelling. It is important to keep a track of your revisions, making sure you know what the latest one is!


  • http://d-nb.info/1128293021/34
  • http://5fcb0ca84346de2e55398eb3ec90358b.flfadv.com.br/
  • https://k.shorefitmb.com/120.html
  • https://www.idtheftcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2018-September-Data-Breach-Package.pdf
  • https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-115hhrg34638/pdf/CHRG-115hhrg34638.pdf

    Louisiana Health Care Quality Forum

    8550 United Plaza Blvd., Ste. 301
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809

    Ph (225) 334-9299 | Fax 225-334-9847

side-nav-off 01
side-nav-off 02
side-nav-off 03
side-nav-off 04