Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
Medical investigations can then determine whether the person has an unusual fluctua tion in hormones or a cycle of mood swings that suggests a diagnosis of bipolar disorder 5 mg leukeran fast delivery cancer horoscope general traits. The late Marc Segar had Asperger’s syndrome and in his essay ‘The Battles of the Autistic Thinker’ (Segar undated) wrote that one thing autistic people are often good at is worrying leukeran 2mg cancer research jobs seattle. I have talked to adults with Asperger’s syndrome who have needed treatment for chronic anxiety cheap leukeran amex cancer man capricorn woman 2015, and many have said that they cannot think of a time in their lives when they did not feel anxious, even in very early child hood. I am not sure if this is a constitutional feature for some people with Asperger’s syndrome or a result of being overly stressed from trying to socialize and cope with the unpredictability and sensory experiences of daily life. The specific event that can elicit feelings of anxiety can be anticipated change such as a replacement class teacher for the day, unexpected changes in routines, public criti cism or praise, or a sensory experience. Very sensitive sensory perception, especially for sounds, can cause the person with Asperger’s syndrome to worry about when the next painful sensory experience will occur. My sister-in-law has Asperger’s syndrome, and the sound of a dog barking is an excruciating experience for her. At times, this has caused her to be almost agoraphobic, fearing leaving her home as a journey to the local shops could include hearing a dog bark. Being anxious will affect the person’s thinking and lead to the development of strat egies to reduce the level of anxiety. When we are relaxed, our bodies are flexible but when anxious we tense our muscles and become rigid. When a person with Asperger’s syndrome is anxious, his or her thinking tends to become more rigid. One of the signs of anxiety for such individuals is ‘tunnel vision’ or a ‘one-track mind’ in thinking. Marc Segar said that ‘The problem with worrying is that it will often distract you from what you need to be concentrating on if you are to solve the problem’ (Segar undated). A means of avoiding anxiety-provoking situations is to develop the type of person ality that is unfortunately perceived as controlling or oppositional. The child can use tantrums, emotional blackmail, rigid defiance and non-compliance to ensure he or she avoids circumstances that could increase anxiety. Another way of avoiding situations associated with anxiety is to retreat into solitude or the special interest. The greatest anxiety is usually associated with social situations, and being alone ensures the person does not make any social errors or suffer humiliation or torment by others. The special interest can be so engrossing and enjoyable that no anxious thought intrudes into the person’s thinking. Clinicians also need to be aware that one way of reducing anxiety is self-medication, such as using alcohol or cannabis. When the level of anxiety is extreme and long-standing, there can be a breakdown of the sense of reality such that the person develops mood-congruent delusions. The obsession can become a delusion, especially when resistance to obsessive or intrusive thoughts is abandoned and insight disappears. The thinking appears disorganized and psychotic, and clearly the person displaying such characteristics should be referred to a psychiatrist who specialises in the treatment of mood disorders in someone with Asperger’s syndrome. Having suffered long-term anxiety, the person will become extremely sensitive to any situation that could increase anxiety. This will also affect the quality of life of those who support the person with Asperger’s syndrome who has a chronic anxiety disorder. Family life is affected in terms of avoiding potentially anxiety-provoking situations, with the person with Asperger’s syndrome and family members feeling they are ‘walking through an anxiety minefield’. For some people with Asperger’s syndrome, there can be worries about events and experiences that are very unlikely to happen. Marc Fleisher has written a book on survival strategies for people with Asperger’s syndrome. He describes his own anxiety and that: One critical observation is the fact that as much as 99 per cent of the things that worried me never happened. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder About 25 per cent of adults with Asperger’s syndrome also have the clear clinical signs of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (Russell et al. In typical people the intrusive thoughts are often about cleanliness, aggression, religion and sex. Clinical experience and research studies indicate that the obsessive thoughts of children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome are much more likely to be about cleanliness, bullying, teasing, making a mistake and being criticized than the other categories of intrusive thoughts (McDougle et al. Compulsions are a sequence of actions and rituals, usually with a repetitive quality, to reduce the level of anxiety. This can include actions such as washing hands to prevent contamination by germs, or checking several times that all the electricity switches in a house are in the off position. The typical behaviour of children with Asperger’s syndrome includes repetitive or compulsive actions. This can include ensuring that objects are in a line or symmetrical, hoarding and counting items or having a ritual that must be completed before the child can fall asleep. However, what is clinically significant is the subjective decision of the psychologist or psychiatrist. The person can have intrusive memories of the traumatic event that are very difficult to ‘block’. An adolescent with Asperger’s syndrome explained to me that the intrusive thoughts (about being the target of very malicious bullying) appear almost to argue with him. It keeps on going on about what happened and going on how wrong the other person was to me.
It is also expensive and can cost $3500 for in order to properly devise a treatment plan buy discount leukeran 2 mg online cancer research review. Preopera a daily dose for 15 days and up to $2000 when adminis tive and intraoperative treatment has successfully re tered weekly for 4 weeks  cheap leukeran master card cancer urban dictionary. Therefore order genuine leukeran line cancer symptoms urdu, it is recom duced infection rates in anemic patients with the mended that preoperative screening to identify the cause collaboration of surgeons, anesthesiologists, immuno of anemia and eliciting respective alternative treatments haematologists, and other specialists . Research Causes may be malnutrition, chronic renal insufficiency, assessing the economic costs associated with anemic or chronic inflammatory disease . The programs costed $3 million to apply in prac decrease their risk of infection . This inexpensive tice, but healthcare savings reached $39 million with and simple approach is recommended for patients who avoided surgical and postoperative complication costs do not urgently need surgery. This treatment should work within 2–3 weeks to replenish iron levels and can raise Malnutrition hemoglobin levels by 1-3 g/dL after 1 month [88, 89]. Malnutrition often coexists with anemia and is another Intravenous iron sucrose treatment has been proven es independent predisposing risk factor for orthopaedic pecially beneficial in hip fracture patients which surgical infections . As many as 50% of orthopaedic displayed less need for postoperative transfusions com surgery patients are malnourished and it is often not pared to patients without treatment . Other intra identified or treated preoperatively, which can lead to venous iron formulations have also been effective in further complications . Malnourishment can lead to high doses with cost-effective benefits including ferric suppressed immune responses, apathy, cardiac and renal carboxymaltose, low molecular weight iron dextran, so complications , sarcopenia, hematoma formation dium ferric gluconate, or iron isomaltoside-1000 [84, , and impaired wound healing . Its use has been approved by the Food and Drug g/dL, prealbumin < 18 mg/dL, total protein < 6. Some studies been no significant decrease in this rate from 2015 to have shown that low preoperative total lymphocyte counts 2016 . Decreased iron levels are predictive of bone cell metabolic activity mostly attributable to nico anemia and reduced protein counts that inhibit wound re tine , along with inhibited collagen synthesis and pair and overall healing . Vitamin D is important for vasoconstriction which prolongs healing time , bone and muscle health, calcium regulation, and control leads to wound necrosis, and weakens immune re of immune responses . Con corporate alternative factors, such as preoperative total sequently, patients who smoke before surgery have sig lymphocyte counts, albumin, transferrin, skin antigen test nificantly more postoperative complications and ing, arm circumference, and triceps skin fold metrics. The infection-related loosening with greater rates of revision results of these tests have been positively correlated to surgery [114, 118]. This has led to increased national malnutrition status in orthopaedic patients . Specifically, diabetic and geriatric patients will in whom smoking attributed to a 10. The frequency and length of time of smoking are influential when assessing patients’ infection and compli Smoking and alcohol use cation risk . This is primarily due to often negatively affected by tobacco use, alcohol con their effects on wound healing and the introduction of sumption, and malnutrition. Surgeons should make sure that pa or behavioral effects on patients who may be noncompli tients do not have any ongoing dental infections or in ant to medical instructions and experience withdrawal complete dental procedures before surgery and also do effects resulting in other adverse outcomes . There not present with decayed teeth, abscess, gingivitis, or fore, preoperative screening for lifestyle risk factors can periodontitis . With tion is associated with organ dysfunction, cardiac a longer cessation period, postoperative complications insufficiency, varied hemostatic function, and immuno are expected to decrease proportionally . Ortho suppression that can be exacerbated in patients under paedic surgery trauma patients following a 4 week smok increased surgical stress . These patients displayed im additional medical problems due to its effect on the body. Other nicotine replacement therapies ate drinkers (> 0–168 g/week), or excessive drinkers (> can include prescription medications such as buproprion 252 g/week) . Smoking cessation can searchers concluded that preoperative guidance and inter be verified with a simple serum cotinine test with a value vention for patients with low-to-moderate alcohol 10 ng/dL , but it is important to note that even consumption can potentially be more lenient when sug the use of nicotine patches will cause this test to be posi gesting abstinence, but preoperative abstinence should still tive for nicotine. This integrative approach has been proven to be cost-ef Therefore, it is important to preoperatively screen fective while also consequentially resulting in life-long every patient for a detailed alcohol history and quantify health benefits if smoking is not continued postopera their usage and frequency. Patients who follow these programs and are scale attributed to alcohol consumption correlates to a persuaded to quit smoking preoperatively are at reduced 29% average increase in the number of surgical compli risk for perioperative and postoperative complications that cations . Preoperative screening should in to patients to assess the overall effects of alcohol and clude patient smoking history and the use of the Physician other lifestyle risk factors, such as tobacco . Pro Quality Reporting System, which has been successful viders should also keep in mind that self-reported con using physician-reported quality measures for Medicare sumption levels can be underestimated and that alcohol  to reduce patient risk. Therefore, surgical patient abuse is defined as consuming at least 5 or more stand optimization with preoperative screening, healthcare ad ard drinks per day . With alcohol cessation, organ dysfunction can be reversed over time and Alcohol consumption hemostasis can be improved within 4–8 weeks of alcohol Another modifiable lifestyle factor that is harmful to pa abstinence . Furthermore, creased immediate postoperative complications such as within 1–2 months, cardiac and immune function can stroke, surgical infections, blood clots, delirium, normalize, and external stress responses can be reduced Antonelli and Chen Arthroplasty (2019) 1:4 Page 9 of 13 after 3 months of alcohol cessation. This intervention with the biological mechanisms where depression de should be multi-disciplinary and include counseling ses velops from an altered innate immune system. Such altercations may prompt physicians and used include benzodiazepines for withdrawal , researchers to preoperatively detect these genetic variants acamprosate , and opioid antagonists  for de in patients to assess their risk level. Programs incorporating preoperative screening should be a routine part of preoperative assessments. Depression and anxiety Those with a history of preoperative depression are at a Lifestyle factors such as malnutrition, overeating, tobacco higher risk to relapse after surgery.
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African Americans in this study were more likely than Caucasians to be younger 2mg leukeran overnight delivery best cancer fighting foods dogs, male cheap 5 mg leukeran amex traits of cancer sign, not married leukeran 5mg for sale cancer research nj, less educated, poor, uninsured or covered by Medicaid, and to reside in a rural community. Even after controlling for sociodemographics, co-occurring diseases, and tumor factors, their odds of undergoing surgery were less than half that of Caucasians. Earlier studies had explored this disparity, but this research showed that the problem persists. Unfortunately, many studies have found disparities in the quality of care received by African American and Caucasian lung cancer patients. African Americans were less likely to undergo staging, receive surgery once staged, or receive a recommendation for surgery even when there were no clear indications against it. Survival was similar for African American and Caucasians after surgical resection, although African Americans were 70 percent more likely to decline surgery. The low incidence rate of lung cancer among Hispanics has traditionally been linked to the low rate of cigarette smoking among this population. Between the years of 1997 and 2006, lung cancer incidence rates among Hispanics decreased by 2. Among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans, and others of Hispanic origin, rates were highest among Caucasians, then Hispanics in Florida, and lowest for those in each Hispanic groups’ home country. It is typical for immigrant populations to take on the disease profle of the country to move to, although the reasons for this vary and are not always understood. In this case, differences in smoking behavior may explain some of the increase for Florida Hispanics, compared to Hispanics in their native countries. The rate among Hispanic women is 55 percent lower than that among Hispanic men, at 13. Inconsistencies have been observed in the treatment of Hispanic and Caucasian lung cancer patients. These fndings suggest that Hispanics are more likely to die in the hospital following lung resection surgery because they go to hospitals that have lower procedure volumes than Caucasians. The survey found that the differences in treatment were not due to health insurance, segregation or number of surgical hospitals in the county. The age-adjusted incidence rate for lung cancer in the Asian American/Pacifc Islander population in 2006 was 38. This rate is much lower than those seen among Caucasian and African American populations. The rate in the region with the highest incidence, the Northern Plains, was 7 times greater than the rate in the region with the lowest incidence, the Southwest. In addition, lung cancer cases among American Indians/Alaska Natives were diagnosed before 65 years of age 39. One way in which researchers could gather more reliable and useful data about Native Americans/Alaska Natives is to link cancer registry data with Indian Health Service records. This should decrease health disparities in this population through better planning, implementation and evaluation of cancer control efforts. September 2008; 1(4):255-65 26 Birdsey J, Alterman T, Petersen mR Race, Occupation, and Lung Cancer: Detecting Disparities with Death Certifcate Data Journal of Occupation and Environmental Medicine. August 20, 2008; 113(S5):1120-30 43 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics National Vital Statistics Report Deaths: Final Data for 2006 April 17, 2009 Vol 57 No 14 44 Ibid 62 Common occupational lung diseases Table 1: Occupational Respiratory Illness Rates for Selected Industry Sectors, 2008 include mesothelioma, occupational Incidence Rate asthma, silicosis, asbestosis, and sick Industry Sector per 10,000 workers building syndrome. Firefghters are also exposed to dust, combustion particles, gases, fumes, and other noxious materials while on the job. Improving American Lung Association State of Lung Disease in Diverse Communities 2010 63 ventilation, wearing protective equipment, changing work procedures, and educating workers are key factors for prevention. Occupation-Specifc Lung Diseases Occupational Asthma Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease. Occupational asthma (also known as work-related asthma) is asthma that is caused or made worse by exposures in the workplace. Estimates suggest that 15 to 23 percent of new asthma cases in adults are work related. During this time, the occupations with the highest percentage of asthma cases were operators, fabricators, and laborers (32. The four most common agents associated with occupational asthma were miscellaneous chemicals (19. Millions of construction and general industry workers have been exposed to asbestos while on the job. Occupations associated with signifcantly higher mesothelioma deaths include plumbers, pipeftters, and steamftters; mechanical engineers; electricians; and elementary school teachers. This long lag time means that mesothelioma deaths are expected to peak around 2010, despite the much lower current use of asbestos. Silica (SiO2) is the name of a group of minerals that are found in mines, foundries, blasting operations, stone, clay, and glass manufacturing. Dust particles from silica can penetrate the respiratory system and land on alveoli (airsacs). This causes scar tissue to develop in the lungs and impair the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Silicosis also makes a person more susceptible to infectious diseases of the lungs, such as tuberculosis.
The largest source is past application of contaminated In 1999 generic 5 mg leukeran fast delivery cancer symptoms in 2 year old, high levels of dioxins were found in poultry and eggs from herbicides on agricultural soils generic 5mg leukeran with amex nice breast cancer quotes. Subsequently purchase 2 mg leukeran with mastercard cancer common traits, dioxin-contaminated animal-based food and deposition onto soils from atmospheric fallout are also signifcant (poultry, eggs, pork) were detected in several other countries. Chickens, eggs, and catfsh were contaminated with dioxins With dioxins persisting in the human body with a half-life of up to when a tainted ingredient (bentonite clay, sometimes called ‘ball clay’) 11 years, it can be quite difcult to make direct correlations between was used in the manufacture of animal feed. Investigators speculate that the source • Links have also been made between stomach cancer and atrazine of dioxins may be natural, perhaps due to a prehistoric forest fre (Bassil, 2007). A cloud of toxic chemicals, including described acute and chronic neurotoxic syndromes. Extensive studies • Many studies have shown that occupational pesticide exposure could in the afected population are continuing to determine the long-term increase the risk of later developing Parkinson’s disease. Tese investigations, however, are hampered • Studies have consistently shown an increased risk of birth defects by the lack of appropriate exposure assessments. The majority of increases in cancer, circulatory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary studies looking at the efects of pesticides on foetal growth showed disease and diabetes following the incident (Consonni et al, 2008). A link separate these efects from other sources of genetic damage, such as to certain types of cancers and also to diabetes is still being investigated. Toxicology tends to be a science dealing with individual poisons and some experts Organic (carbon-based) pollutants include pesticides. Tose that say that understanding the risks from multiple agents is the greatest were once released into air or water will end up in soils, with the challenge to modern toxicology. The efects of the soil and organisms within it upon organic pollutants are unknown. This is one of the factors Sanborn et al, 2007) show that health efects of organic pollutants that makes synthetic organic chemicals hard for natural processes to could include the following: deal with – they are toxic to living creatures and do not break down • Individuals with increased exposure to pesticides (e. As well as persisting in the environment, this also means that landscapers) appear to be at greater risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The chemical industry creates (or previously created) these compounds • Some studies have linked leukaemia, particularly in children, with in very large quantities, to use in a wide range of products including insecticides. Timing of exposure is signifcant, with children exposed plastics, refrigerants, preservatives and pesticides. Pesticides have also been actually by-products of these processes, and are not useful in their own linked to brain cancer in children whose parents are exposed to high right. Examples include dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans levels of pesticides, for example, through work. There was little change in the concentrations or distribution of organochlorine pesticides concentrations over the ten years. Methodological issues: difculties in measuring soil contamination and health impacts Tere are many methodological issues around soil sampling, that is weakly bonded. Tese properties relate to the contaminant’s background exposure levels and health study design that are beyond bioavailability (see Section 4. However, a few key issues are listed here to help put the complexity of the science involved In contrast to their behaviour in air and water, pollutants in the soil in context. This report mainly considers the health impacts from individual, point sources of soil contamination. However, knowledge of the level of that contaminant in soil and human susceptibility in its presence 4. To get an idea of Estimates of soil toxicity depend on the techniques used to measure the true public health risk, other sources that people are exposed to them, and the interpretation of the results. This ‘background this is provided by England’s Environment Agency who took a soil intake’ may come from food, drinking water, or air pollution levels. The Agency also sent three further soil exposure may also contribute to the overall impact on health from soil samples with varying levels of arsenic, lead and nickel to laboratories. The aim was to compare the results the laboratories gave regarding bioaccessibility estimates, and total metal concentrations using their standard procedures. Whether the soil an important fnding was that, based on the sample previously tested has been moved or landscaped will also have an impact. Standardised on humans, most laboratories were underestimating the bioaccessibility sampling methods are important as a site will not necessarily have a for lead in the sample using their laboratory methods. In cases of sampling at a Scientists working in land contamination risk assessment frequently large plant or facility, accurate measurements of contamination levels at use ‘in vitro’ (laboratory only) tests to estimate bioaccessibility of the site may not be possible until the plant has been decommissioned contaminants from the soils on their sites. Bioavailability and Whether a soil absorbs or releases a pollutant depends on: bioaccessibility defnitions • Types of mineral present • Amount of organic material present Bioaccessibility: the fraction of a substance that is • Soil pH (acidity) released from soil during processes like digestion into • Redox potential solution (the so-called bioaccessible fraction) • Moisture Bioavailability: the fraction of the chemical that can How efectively contaminant molecules bond with the surface of the be absorbed by the body through the gastrointestinal soil (absorbs) is important when considering the human health risks. A strongly-bonded contaminant will be less likely to leach out of the soil into groundwater, or be released from the soil as a vapour than one Source: It means that further investigation and/or contaminant, or exposure to diferent media containing a contaminant. For example, a child may as the makeup of the soil itself, could difer considerably from the ingest some soil containing a quantity of a heavy metal known to be ‘reference’ sample used to derive the established risk limit values for that above risk levels for negative health impacts, which is classed as the contaminant in soil (Environment Agency, 2007). But the percentage of that heavy metal that is actually taken in and processed by the child’s body is the uptake. Absorbed fraction from soil As soil properties may vary considerably from one site to another, Relative bioavailability (%) = x100 even if two soils contain the same levels of a certain contaminant, the bioavailability of that contaminant to humans may be quite diferent, Absorbed fraction from depending, for example, on how tightly the chemical is bound to the soil. The complexity of calculating not just the current risk from a A practical example of this calculation would be: site, but also its future risks, is considerable. A great deal depends upon the stability of the chemical contaminants in the soil over time, and Amount of contaminant upon the site’s future uses. Comparing arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility in Spain Very few studies have tried to relate arsenic bioaccessibility (the fraction of a contaminant that is soluble in the mouth or digestive system and available for absorption) with arsenic bioavailability (the fraction of an administered dose that reaches the bloodstream).
Osteochondritis dissecans of the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses leukeran 2 mg otc cancer love horoscope pro astro. Meniscal injuries can be the result of a forceful buy 2mg leukeran otc cancer sign traits tumblr, differential when evaluating a patient discount leukeran 5mg without a prescription cancer and stages of dying. Meniscal tears can twisting event in a young athlete’s knee or it can insid be identifed by asking a few focused questions during the iously present in the older patient. The mechanism of injury is important as meniscal pathology appropriately undergo conservative are the presence of specifc symptoms after injury. The joint swelling with a meniscus the most frequently performed procedure on the knee tear is more likely to present in a delayed fashion (> 24 hours). This diag elucidate the diagnosis and management of meniscal nosis can be diffcult to distinguish from osteoarthritis in pathology resulting in knee pain. A degenerative tears in the older patient represent a contin few provocative examination maneuvers for meniscal pain uum of pathology, often presenting with their own diff include the Apley Compression, McMurray, Steinman and culties in diagnosis and management. In some Northern European countries, a rotational moment about the leg to try to elicit clicking, the estimated incidence of meniscal tears is 2 per 1000 per popping or pain. The McMurray Test is performed with the patient in the supine body with the knee fexed at 5 and 20 degrees. The examiner places one hand on the heel, which will provide assistance by holding the patient’s hands for stabilization. The menisci are triangular in cross-sec often not necessary when osteoarthritis is recognized on tion, and predominantly comprised of water, proteoglycans plain flms or there is a high clinical suspicion for menis and Type 1 collagen. This disparity in motion contributes to the most often seen in the presence of meniscal tears, so images frequency in which each meniscus is injured. A meniscus is injured much more often than the lateral menis study performed by Zanetti et al. Meniscal tears menisci become increasingly important restraints to anterior were found in 57 of the symptomatic knees and 36 of the translation of the tibia, predisposing it to injury. However, they are still valuable in Figure 3, are the most common type of meniscal tear initial tests and provide information about bony anatomy and can be repaired when present in the peripheral third and alignment. Meniscal tear patterns periphery; they are usually not repairable due to the Image Courtesy of Michaela Procaccini poor vascularity of this area of the meniscus. Bucket-handle tears are vertical tears with displacement that can cause mechanical blocks to fexion/extension. Flap and parrot-beak tears are tears that initiate centrally and continue in a circumferential manner. This is typically consistent with small radial tears and stable, nondisplaced longi tudinal tears. Several studies have shown statistically signifcant, short-term improvement in pain following an intra-articular surgery for patients with symptoms consistent with a degen steroid injection lasting 2–4 weeks or longer. However, they do an arthroscopic debridement, arthroscopic lavage, or placebo reinforce the importance of attempting conservative man surgery group and reported no signifcant differences in the agement, especially for the older patient with a degenerative Knee-Specifc Pain Scale at one and two-year follow-up. The predictive value of fve clinical nism, or a large joint effusion are likely candidates for oper signs in the evaluation of meniscal pathology. The such as the McMurray, Apley, and Steinman tests or any value of clinical examination versus magnetic resonance imag patient with a locked knee are also likely surgical candi ing in the diagnosis of meniscal tears and anterior cruciate liga 6, 20 ment rupture. A Systematic Approach to Magnetic tation for either arthroscopy or arthroplasty as appropriate. Resonance Imaging Interpretation of Sports Medicine Injuries of 20 Operative options include partial meniscectomy, total the Knee. Katz J, Brophy R, Chaisson C, Chaves L, Cole B, Dahm D, Don Total meniscectomies are rarely performed considering nell-Fink L, et al. Surgery versus physical therapy for a the implication of increased stresses experienced by artic meniscal tear and osteoarthritis. Moseley J, OMalley K, Petersen N, Menke T, Brody B, Kuyken dall D, Hollingsworth J, et al. A Controlled Trial of Ar cal transplantation is usually considered after partial or throscopic Surgery for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. N Engl J Med, total meniscectomy with persistent symptoms in younger 347(2):81-8 patients that have reached skeletal maturity without 16. Sihvonen R, Paavola M, Malmivaara A, Itala A, Joukainen A, arthritic changes of the knee. Arthroscopic partial meniscec tomy versus sham surgery for a degenerative meniscal tear. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 42(11), Meniscal injury is one of the more common musculoskeletal 919-931. Painful tears can be ment for degenerative horizontal tears of the medial menis cus. The clinical importance of Sports Medicine, Care New England Health System, Assistant meniscal tears demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in osteoarthritis of the knee. Risk factors for Correspondence meniscal tears: a systematic review including meta-analysis. This mechanically induced pathology is thought to result from excessive forces at the hip joint2,3 and has been proposed as part of a continuum of hip joint disease that may result in articular cartilage degener ation. In order to provide the most appropriate intervention for patients with anterior hip or groin pain, physical therapists should be knowledgeable about all of the possible sources and causes of this pain, including a tear of the acetabular labrum and the possible factors contributing to these tears. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the anatomy and function of the acetabular labrum and present current concepts on the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of labral tears. Anatomy and Function of the Acetabular Labrum the acetabular labrum is a ring consisting of both fibrocartilage and dense connective tissue10 attached to the bony rim of the acetabulum (Fig. This ring is normally triangular in cross section, although other variants, including round, irregular, and flattened, have been noted in people without hip pain. The labrum appears to be a continuous structure and is completed by the transverse acetabular ligament over the acetabular notch10,15 (Fig.