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Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.

Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.

  • Professor of Medicine
  • Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science


Hameroff have proposed the idea that the human brain can attain high triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency buy citalopram online now medicine mart. On the other effcient quantum computation by functioning of microtubular structure of neurons discount citalopram 10 mg mastercard medicine for sore throat. But hand buy discount citalopram online medications 3 times a day, evidence has been accumulated on the infuence of electromagnetic felds on living Tegmark estimated the duration of coherence to be on the order of 10^-13 seconds, which is organisms. The above experimental observations ft into the physical view which addresses far smaller than the one tenth of a second associated with consciousness and it is normally biological dynamics as an interplay of chemical processes and electromagnetic interactions. However it can be shown theoretically that the quantum coher theory of liquid water based on Quantum Field Theory. This theory is intrinsically non-linear ent state can be maintained in the brain at the room temperature contrary to the Tegmarks and it provides the suitable tools to describe a complex ensemble of processes which are also estimation from the assumption that the evanescent photon is a superluminal particle called non-linear. In this presentation, the author has shown the possibility of quantum computation discip. During infation, the universe is a de Sitter Frequently the situation arises that a learner is confronted with inconsistent data in which universe: is totally empty, expands exponentially, and has an event horizon. Quantum de Sit some training examples associate an input with an incorrect output label. Following com ter horizons can be modelled by the quantum holographic principle, that is attaching a qubit putational learning theory one can cast training of a classifer as an optimization problem. The quantum de Sitter horizons of the the optimization attempts to simultaneously minimize the error the classifer commits on early universe were superposed quantum memory registers. Through considerations of the the training samples as well as the complexity of the classifer. The latter leads to improved actual entropy of the universe, we computed that the quantum information processed during generalization error which is the error the system makes on new unseen data. Thus the learner is confronted with tackling a giving rise to a conscious state up to decoherence, and 10^18 is the total number of tubulins hard optimization that can not be solved to optimality with classical hardware. Then, we suggested that at the end of infation the universe had a cosmic conscious experience. In my talk, I will explain how the Vedic world view looks at and thermography images. The Vedic world view frequency that lead to time dilation and for high body temperature this results is inverse. I will also discuss the expan infrared spectroscopy show disorders in range of glucose metabolism and also temperature sion of awareness to higher states of consciousness, from deep sleep, dreaming, wakeful variations. All of these fndings on string of Wien and Planck laws and Hasselkamp, Mon consciousness, soul consciousness, cosmic consciousness, divine consciousness, and unity dry, Scharmann experiments proves the processes that indicate, life signals in body and time consciousness. Why is there something rather sity Fars Science and Research Branch, Shiraz, Iran-Fars Iran (Islamic Republic Of)) than nothing? Is the apparent grand design of our universe evidence of consciousness or In Iranian myths time has historical and vague meaning. We recognised from Zarvan Traits the most fundamental questions about the origins of the universe and of life itself, one the that we dont have any inception and ending for the time. John Hintz about the Universe province of philosophy, now occupy the territory where scientists, philosophers, and theolo evolution said Cosmos limited the universe and having supervision to this. In my talk, the Grand Design, I will present the most recent ethnics believed that time is the result of motion. Anaximander said, The discipline of the scientifc thinking about the mysteries of the cosmos, and describe the current theories of the universe is according to the time`s determination. C39 206 Time dilation and Em wavelength variations as the consequence of temperature changes in body and brain for affect life signals and time perception Mojtaba Omid, 4. This purports the equivalence of what is indicated by four concepts: the null, the of core body temperature changes in lifespan variations. The aim of this paper is that shows, temperature because affect were exterior and superior, then the whole would be less than the whole. Temperature is four is analysed as the aggregate of the universe, in the sense of observed universe, together subject in physics that its intensity is related to electromagnetic wavelength and frequency with the observer, in the sense of physiological processes of the act of observation. For the on rule of Wien displacement and Planck constant and with reduces temperature, electro equivalence of the whole with the null stems, as much as two hands pressing horizontally magnetic waves deal to higher wavelength and shorter frequency. On base of Hasselkamp, against each other have a resulting horizontal null force, forces in the cosmos would result Mondry, and Scharmann experiments, the lower frequency can be attributed to the time annihilating partially when considered in partial aggregation, and annihilating totally into dilation effect in absence of Doppler Effect. In body and brain the most useful molecule for the null when considered all of them, including the act of observation, including the last metabolism process is glucose and with glucose metabolism, raises the local organ and body atom (empirical fndings in Benazzo, 2010B. In cancer patients especially breast cancer patients and in brain tumor, scien observer, remains forcibly transcendental to the observer. In cosmological terms, the cosmos tists detected high density of glucose metabolism with increase body temperature and it is needs as such to curve on itself such that time fows backwards as well as forward, as the clear that in these patients life signals reduce prominently and in patients with abnormalities totality of the cosmos would be beyond time and beyond any dimension. Space needs also in brain and mind functions, there are also disorders in brain glucose metabolism with symp to curve and return back, matter and energy to interact with their anti-form (Charon, 1987. Physical and Biological Sciences 141 the model of such a null-whole cosmos entails a virtuality of the observed universe, while theory. It was developed to account for processes in the microcosm accepted empirical evidence concerning Supernovae measurements (Benazzo, 2010A&B. Many quantum physicists the observer lacks the possibility to physically live a paradox, in the immanent observed hold the view that the participatory role of observation is fundamental and the underly universe. This may well happen concurrently to a transcendental experience of a paradoxical ing stuff of the cosmos are innumerable quantum processes, rather than some immutable cosmos which closes itself in a circular closed loop with dimensions cancelling out into the material substance. Thomas Youngs double-slit experiment, performed on the double nature of electro most notably the issue of self-awareness: How does one address the self-aware subject as magnetic radiation, shows that the scientists act of observation empirically alters the results an object?

The fluid removal rate can range from 100 to 500 ml/hour and is set by the treating physician citalopram 20 mg fast delivery medicine 7767. Other potential complications include air embolism buy citalopram 10 mg medicine xarelto, and overly aggressive volume removal (Bourge 2005 discount citalopram 10mg with visa medications containing sulfa, Bart 2012. System 100 is indicated for temporary (up to 8 hours) ultrafiltration treatment of patients with fluid overload. In 2005, System 100 was renamed Aquadex FlexFlow and launched with several new features (according to the manufacturer. Patients randomized to the usual care group received the conventional heart failure therapy. The results of the trial show that the weight loss (primary endpoint of the trial) was not significantly different between the two study groups. The average volume removal of fluid was significantly higher 2006 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington. Back to Top Date Sent: 3/24/2020 1128 these criteria do not imply or guarantee approval. Patients in the two treatment groups experienced improvement in their symptoms during the treatment period. The significant difference may be due to the greater fluid removal or due to chance as the trial was small, un-blinded, and the outcome measure was subjective. The removal of fluid was aggressive (8,654 + 4,205 ml) and resulted in a mean decrease of 6 kg of weight at discharge, and improvement in the clinical signs of symptoms of fluid overload that seem to have lasted for the 90 days of follow-up. This was only an observational case series with no comparison or control group and subject to selection and observation bias. The study was not blinded, the primary outcomes were weight loss and dyspnea score at 48 hours, and the patients were followed up for 90 days. The unpublished results of the trial indicate that both treatments were associated with significant improvement in the dyspnea score at 48 hours, but with no significant difference between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to date to determine the efficacy and long-term safety of ultrafiltration versus standard care in acute decompensated heart failure, or to determine who would benefit most from the intervention. The search yielded around 280 articles most of which were review articles, opinion pieces, or dealt with the technical aspects of the procedures. Early ultrafiltration in patients with decompensated heart failure and diuretic resistance. This latter indication of ultrafiltration was only evaluated in a one retrospective study with no control group. The co-primary outcomes were weight loss and patient self-assessed dyspnea score at 48 hours. The authors considered the lack of significant difference between the two groups for this as well as other outcomes, as similar effects when the trial was not designed as equivalent study, and the lack of significant differences could results from insufficient statistical power. The trial had a relatively small size and short follow-up duration, excluded patients with hypotension or hemodynamic instability, and used suboptimal dose and mode of administration of loop 2006 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington. Back to Top Date Sent: 3/24/2020 1129 these criteria do not imply or guarantee approval. In addition, the authors did not present any data on low-salt diet compliance, or criteria for hospitalization. The assigned treatment was continued in the two groups until signs and symptoms of congestion were improved as possible. The primary endpoint was bivariate (simultaneous) change in serum creatinine level and body weight in 96 hours after randomization. Recruitment for the trial was stopped early before reaching the planned size of 200 subjects based on the advice of the data and safety monitoring board due to lack of benefit and excess adverse events with ultrafiltration. There was no significant difference between the groups in weight loss at 96 hours. At the 60 days of follow up, there were no statistically significant differences in weight loss, or rate of hospitalization due to heart failure. This was associated with significant improvement in hemodynamic variables but with no improvements in sCr levels or blood urea. The overall 1-year all-cause mortality was 70% and 2 of the surviving patients underwent heart transplantation. The results of the study should be interpreted with caution due to the study design and its inclusion of severely ill patients. The trial had its limitations and does not provide any evidence on the safest and most effective rates of fluid removal, duration of treatment, or the conditions for termination of ultrafiltration. Back to Top Date Sent: 3/24/2020 1130 these criteria do not imply or guarantee approval. Criteria | Codes | Revision History decompensated heart failure and worsening renal function. Back to Top Date Sent: 3/24/2020 1131 these criteria do not imply or guarantee approval. Back to Top Date Sent: 3/24/2020 1140 these criteria do not imply or guarantee approval. The Prostatic Urethral Lift (UroLift) is a minimally invasive procedure that provides anterolateral mechanical traction of the lateral lobes of the prostate, reducing obstruction and opening the urethral lumen. The procedure is carried out transurethrally under local or general anesthesia [3]. The system is composed of a UroLift Delivery Device and a UroLift Permanent Implant. The UroLift Delivery Device is positioned through the obstructed urethra to access and compress one lateral lobe of the prostate toward the capsule. The procedure is performed endoscopically with minimal incision or thermal injury of the prostate. It is being reviewed for the first time based on a request from the Clinical review Unit for coverage decision.

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If the pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum increases in size or is large on initial identifcation purchase citalopram mastercard medicine 003, a thoracic surgery consult should be called for further intervention buy discount citalopram 20 mg line treatment yeast infection home. Consider proton pump inhibitors and/or H2 blockers to prevent further injury to the damaged mucosa 10mg citalopram otc symptoms 24 hours before death. Esophageal Perforation y Early recognition and management of esophageal perforations have decreased the mortality rate from 60 percent to 9 percent from complications, such as a retroesophageal abscess or mediastinitis. Caustic Ingestion the incidence of caustic ingestion has decreased since the Federal Hazardous Substances Act of 1960 and the Poison Prevention 224 Resident Manual of Trauma to the Face, Head, and Neck Packaging Act of 1970 mandated childproof container caps and packag ing. Injury can range from mild mucosal irritation to death, depending on the quantity and type of substance ingested. Categories and Examples of Caustic Materials Acids (pH < 7) Alkali (pH > 7) Bleach (pH ~7) Toilet bowl cleaner Lime Sodium hypochlorite Battery fuid Laundry detergent Calcium hypochlorite Sulfuric acid Clinitest? tablets Hair-relaxing agents* *Hair-relaxing agent packaging is not mandated by the U. Their pleasant odor and colorful tubs unintentionally attract children, leading to an increased incidence of ingestion over the last decade. Acids (pH <7) Acids (pH <7) cause coagulation necrosis with eschar formation, which limits its penetration to deeper tissues. Esophageal damage is less likely due to the protection aforded by the slightly alkaline pH of the esopha gus and resistance of the squamous epithelium to acids. Gastric injury may occur at a slightly higher incidence due to pooling and prolonged contact from refex pylorospasm. Alkali (pH >7) Alkali (pH >7) agents cause liquefaction necrosis, which breaks down the cellular membranes, allowing deeper penetration into tissues. Tissue damage continues until the alkali is neutralized by its reaction with the tissues, resulting in signifcant injury. Bleach (pH ~7) Bleach (pH ~7) is an esophageal irritant that causes minimal morbidity or mortality. Injury may range from upper airway edema, causing respiratory distress to gastric perforation and hemodynamic instability. Age and Amount Ingested Incidental ingestion is most common in children under 5 years of age. Ingested volumes are small, since the bitter taste makes the child spit out the remaining substance. Adolescent and adult caustic ingestions are more often intentional or suicide attempts, so a larger volume is often ingested. Agent Ingested It is important to identify whether the agent was an acid or a base. If the agent is known, concentration and pH can often be found online or by calling the National Poison Center?s 24-hour National Poison Control Hotline (1-800-222-1222. Large volumes of strong acids are often needed to create injury, but only a few milliliters of a strong alkali can cause extensive damage instantaneously. Also, acids are more likely to result in chemical epiglottitis, which places the patient at high risk of airway obstruction. Besides the type of agent, try to determine whether it was in a liquid or granular form. Timing of Ingestion Knowing the timing of the ingestion will help guide management. It is important to know when the caustic ingestion occurred to assess potential complications and whether the patient is a candidate for endoscopy. Up to 30 percent of patients with caustic esophageal injury do not show any evidence of oropharyngeal damage. The absence or presence of visible injury on physical exam should not infuence further investigation. Limit Fluid Intake Patients who present immediately after ingestion and are stable may be given water to dilute the ingested substance and rinse it from the esophagus. Fluid intake should be no more than 15 milliliters per kilogram of weight, as excess fuids may induce vomiting. They may cause exothermic chemical reactions that will increase injury to the esophagus. Apply Conservative Measures Conservative measures are recommended on presentation: y Clean oral mucosa with water to dilute any remaining caustic material. Place Nasogastric Feeding Tubes under Supervision Nasogastric feeding tubes may be placed during endoscopy. Radiographic Imaging Radiographic imaging plays a minimal role in initial presentation. A barium esophagram is inadequate to detect mucosal irregularities and motility disturbances, leading to a signifcant false negative rate. It may be used to rule out a suspected perforation, but should not replace an endoscopic exam, unless the patient presented more than 48 hours after the inciting event. Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine may be used in detecting esophageal injury after pediatric ingestion. Technetium 99m-labeled sucralfate has high sensitivity and specifcity in determining the presence of an esophageal injury, which allows for screening of injuries, but does not determine severity or enable intervention. Indications for Endoscopy y Endoscopy is recommended for any adult having ingested a strong alkali or acid, regardless of the lack of presenting signs or symptoms. However, if glucose test tablets or a battery is suspected, the patient should be taken emer gently to the operating room, despite the absence of symptoms. If a technetium 99m-labeled sucralfate study results in positive fndings, the patient should undergo endoscopy. Timing of Endoscopy In stable patients, upper endoscopy should be performed during the frst 24?48 hours after ingestion. After several days, necrotic tissue sloughs of, the esophageal wall becomes weak, and the patient is at higher risk of perforation during endoscopy or nasogastric tube placement. Endoscopic Stages of Esophageal Burns Grade of Efect of Injury Treatment Injury Injury and Outcome Normal No erythema No healing time.

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There were a total ing non-invasive means of modulating blood fow in normal human brains and in malig of 1500 attempts to identify the presence of the virus with a total of 19 separate viewers discount generic citalopram uk treatment wetlands. This methodology has allowed us to measure the functional Our accuracy rate was between chance and 100% depending on the protocol and the view magnetic resonance effects of external Qi Gong trusted citalopram 40 mg treatment juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, a form of Traditional Chinese Medicine ers buy 40 mg citalopram free shipping treatment 3 nail fungus. Additionally, for unknown reasons, virus infected plants maintained a longer life systems, including brain tumors, at a distance using mental intention and directing qi. Relapses are common after cessation of treatment their temporal rhythms in normal brain and in brain with tumor and surrounding healthy with both viral illnesses. The experiment consisted of two sessions randomly selected for a plant had a virus. Conclusion: We present evidence that Qi Gong intention can alter blood fow in a targeted manner and that it may 5. Experiential Approaches offer a non-invasive novel technology for altering the biology of tumors prior to application of surgical, radiotherapeutic or chemotherapeutic interventions. It follows that what is perceived by the former is this External signals can be understood as self-navigating signals. It seems as if living organism applies controlling signals both to of photos/representations where light prevails. The latter belongs to consciousness and atten control its own development from a single cell to the adult individual and to control its own tion. A number of fner-scale underlying processes have been suggested by other you will still see the same view of darkness, nothing or whatever, an indication of sameness authors. Hameroff proposed that lateral dendritic web is a vehicle for a conscious agent and and connection. Can such events with the problem that it always seems to be something behind the scene as. This interpretation is the inverse of the normal way Depolarization of colours being frst one colour in inertia in an unconscious condition such we interpret things. It seems to be diffcult to explain neural information as something inherent and explained by the physical substrate of matter that builds the brain or 245 Higher levels of consciousness beyond Vedas and their attainment in religion of inherent and explain by the energy consumed. Thereby time and space frames seem to need Saints and Radhasoami faith Sukhdev Roy

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Worldwide data are used and are quoted from original studies buy citalopram 40 mg fast delivery treatment 4 pimples, not from abstracts or reviews purchase citalopram 40mg fast delivery medicine 751. Both published and unpublished reports are considered buy citalopram with american express medicine world, and it is incumbent on the authors to assess all the articles cited in the references. Unpublished data are used only when relevant published data are absent or when they are pivotal to the risk assessment. In the evaluation of human health risks, sound human data, whenever available, are preferred to animal data. Animal and in vitro studies provide support and are used mainly to supply evidence missing from human studies. It is mandatory that research on human subjects is conducted in full accord with ethical principles, including the provisions of the Helsinki Declaration. The Task Group members serve as individual scientists, not as representatives of any organization, government, or industry. Their function is to evaluate the accuracy, significance, and relevance of the information in the document and to assess the health and environmental risks from exposure to the chemical or chemicals in question. A summary and recommendations for further research and improved safety aspects are also required. The composition of the Task Group is dictated by the range of expertise required for the subject of the meeting and by the need for a balanced geographical distribution. Represen tatives from relevant national and international associations may be invited to join the Task Group as observers. Although observers may provide a valuable contribution to the process, they can speak only at the invitation of the Chairperson. Observers do not participate in the final evaluation of the chemicals; this is the sole responsibility of the Task Group members. The Chairpersons of Task Groups are briefed before each meeting on their role and responsibility in ensuring that these rules are followed. To prepare the first draft, the Collaborating Centre convened two drafting group meetings of experts in Bilthoven, the first in December 2002 and the second in June 2004. The efforts of all who helped in the preparation and finalization of the monograph are gratefully acknowledged. Cohen Tervaert, Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Professor K. Conrad, Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany Dr G. Hall, Immunology and Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, England Professor M. Ohsawa, Department of Toxicology and Environmen tal Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa, Japan Dr R. Vos, Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands Secretariat Ms C. Vickers, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland * * * Participants at June 2004 Meeting of Chapter Authors Professor R. Chauhan, Joint Director, Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India Professor J. Conrad, Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany Dr J. Damoiseaux, Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Dr W. Pieters, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences — Immunotoxicology, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Professor N. Vos, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands Secretariat Ms K. Vickers, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland * * * Final Task Group Members Professor J. Cohen Tervaert, Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Dr C. Corsini, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy (Co Rapporteur) Dr J. Damoiseaux, Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Professor J. Descotes, Centre Antipoison, Centre de Pharmaco vigilance, Lyon, France (Co-Rapporteur) Dr D. Løvik, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, and Department of Environmental Immunology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Oslo, Norway Dr M. Ohsawa, Department of Toxicology and Environmen tal Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa, Japan Professor M. Kunz, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Ms C. It may be part of the physiological immune response ( natural auto immunity) or pathologically induced, which may eventually lead to development of clinical abnormalities ( autoimmune diseases. Many different autoimmune diseases can occur, but all are charac terized by the inappropriate or excessive immune response against autoantigens, leading to chronic inflammation, tissue destruction, and/or dysfunction. To date, more than 60 diseases have a proven or strongly suspected autoimmune etiology. However, when all autoimmune diseases are combined, the estimated prevalence is high (3–5% of the general population), which underlines their importance to public health. Because of diffi culties in diagnosis and in designing and standardizing epidemio logical studies, limited data are available, and the prevalence may actually be underestimated. Nonetheless, there is epidemiological evidence of increasing prevalence of certain autoimmune diseases in highly industrialized countries, which cannot be attributed to better diagnosis alone. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that auto immune mechanisms may play a role in many other diseases (athero sclerosis, for instance.

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Should be familiar with the operation best purchase citalopram medicine 5000 increase, function and routine maintenance of equipment generic citalopram 10mg with mastercard symptoms rotator cuff tear. Should be able to function as a part of a team that is essential for the diagnosis and management of a patient buy generic citalopram 40mg on line medications nurses. It is implied that he/she will, whenever necessary, interact with the patient and the clinician or other colleagues to provide the best possible diagnosis or opinion. Respect the rights of the patient including the right to information and second opinion. Provide leadership and inspire members of the team with whom he/she is involved with in the fields of diagnostic, teaching and research. Discuss the etiology and the pathophysiological basis of diseases in children and adults. Explain the salient aspect of epidemiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of these disorders. Make rational and relevant selection of tests (biochemical/ hematological/ microbiological etc. Perform the specified important tests belonging to physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, hematology & immunology disciplines with a high order of mastery. Modify/develop and establish newer techniques belonging to all subspecialties of laboratory medicine. Simultaneous exercise on quality assessment and quality assurance in all laboratory services. Explain the underlying principle and design of important laboratory, instruments, their use as well as maintenance of the same. The curriculum for a postgraduate course leading to the highest non-research degree in any subject is extremely difficult to compile. Spatial organization, flooring, ventilation, drainage, disposal of waste (ii) Lab. Specimen collection and dispatch of report (viii) Computerization of laboratory services. Course and Curriculum of M D Laboratory Medicine 81 (ix) Legal aspect of laboratory services. Quality Assurance (i) Source of errors in laboratory results Pre-instrumental Instrumental Post-instrumental (ii) Methods of detection of errors (iii) Corrective measures to minimize the errors (iv) Methods of documentation of the whole procedures (v) Onward transmission of the knowledge and skill to the other laboratory (vi) Preparation of internal control (vii) Proficiency testing programme (viii) Participation in E. Instrumentation To know the: (a) Principle of functioning (b) Major parts (c) Operational aspect (d) Preventive maintenance, and (e) Calibration/standardization, if applicable of the following instruments A. Clinical Biochemistry (a) Physical Chemistry Theory (Knowledge) (i) Mol wt, Atomic wt, Eq. Water of crystallization, Colloid, Crystalloid, Osmolality, Osmolarity, Specific gravity etc. Practical (Skill) Preparation of standard, normal & molar solution Preparation of buffers Preparation of Laboratory reagents Handling of corrosives, poisonous chemicals (b) Clinical Biochemistry Theory (Knowledge) 1. Chemistry, identification, synthesis, determination, separation, metabolism, and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymology: Regulations & diagnostic values of enzymes & isozymes in heealth and disease 8. Toxicology & health hazards Practical (Skill) (i) Mannual method of estimation of sugar, urea, bilirubin protein (total and fractional) creatinine, cholesterol, uric acid, amylase, acid and alkaline phosphatase. Clinical Pathology (Clinical microscopy of body fluids) Theory (Knowledge) and Practical (Skill) i. Clinical Hematology Theory (Knowledge) (i) Detection and typing of anemia (ii) Polycythemia (iii) Neutrophilia, Eosinophilia, Basophilic, Lymphocytosis, Neutropenia, Lymphopenia, Agranulocytosis. Practical (Skill) (i) Collection, transport and processing of blood samples for different hematological investigation. Transfusion Medicine Theory (Knowledge) It is expected that students should possess knowledge of the following aspects of Transfusion Medicine. Clinical Microbiology Theory (Knowledge) (i) Medically important microbes in general. Their general behaviors, life history, metabolism, genetics and mode of infection. Infection/Nosocomial infection (iv) Medically important parasites (v) Medically important viruses (vi) Medically important fungi (vii) Systemic Microbiology: Gastroenteritis and bacterial food poisoning, Septicemia, wound infection, burn, U. B, Kinyouns Alberts special stains for spares, capsules, inclusion bodies, parasites & fungi (iv) Culture Media: their preparation, inoculation, and uses. Clinical Immunology Theory (Knowledge) (i) Physiology of Immune System (ii) Hypersensitivity Reactions (iii) Autoimmune Diseases (iv) Transplantation Immunology (v) Host-Parasite interaction Practical (Skill) (i) Demonstration of T and B cell. Clinical Medicine (i) Independently history taking, examination and assessment of the patients, formulation of panel of tests, sending samples and requisition forms to the central or satellite lab services. Students are also encouraged to present papers in conferences and publish papers in peer reviewed journals. Due emphasis is laid on the importance of obtaining ethical clearance from appropriate committees for both animal and human studies. The following points are guidelines to what may be expected of the student at the end of the course. Interpret the observations in the light of existing knowledge and highlight in what ways the study has advanced existing knowledge on the subject and what further remains to be done. Take photomicrographs, of a quality fit for publication in an international journal. The curriculum programme and scheduling of postings are done in such a way that the student are given opportunities to embrace the above broad objectives. The student are blend as an integral part of the activities of an academic department that usually revolves around three equally important basic functions of teaching, research and service.


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