Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
Complete antigens usually have a molec- ular weight in excess of 10 000 daltons cheap sporanox 100mg otc, but even smaller substances buy sporanox overnight delivery, termed haptens purchase 100mg sporanox free shipping, can activate the adaptive immune response if they are complexed with a larger carrier molecule. Adaptive immune responses can be beneficial when they protect against invading pathogens. The two cardinal features of the adaptive immune response are specificity and memory. Specificity is exemplified by the ability of the immune response to distinguish one foreign antigen from another, as well as to distinguish autoantigens from non-auto- antigens. Memory is seen when a second encounter with an antigen prompts a more rapid and vigorous immune response to the same antigen. The job of the adaptive immune response, then, is to sort out the virtually limitless array of possible antigens. The task is accomplished by expressing a large number of recognition structures on the surface of lymphocytes. These specialized white blood cells are responsible for immunological specificity and memory. In 12 principle, each of the body’s 10 lymphocytes bears a distinctive recognition structure or receptor, providing a sufficient diversity of receptors so that any possible antigenic determinant, or epitope, will find a lymphocyte with a corresponding receptor. In order to generate a sufficient diversity of receptors on their surface, lympho- cytes employ a unique system of genetic shuffling and recombina- tion. When they encounter an appropriately configured portion of an antigen, usually in the form of a small sequence of amino acids in a large protein molecule or a few monosaccharide units in a large carbohydrate, the lymphocyte binds the antigenic determinant. Each of the progeny bears the same specific receptor as its pro- genitor lymphocyte. In a few days, a large clone of lymphocytes emerges, each being the specific receptor. Some of these lympho- cytes proceed to provide the specific protection against the invader. Other lymphocytes return to their normal quiescent state in which they persist for long periods of time. On second exposure to the same antigen, a larger number of lymphocytes bearing the specific receptor is available to respond, producing the rapid, vigorous response associated with immunological memory. Lymphocytes all develop from pluripotential stem cells located in the red bone marrow. Most B cells complete their development in the bone marrow, whereas precursor T cells migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they mature. When mature B cells encounter their corresponding antigen, they proliferate and 12 Introduction to the Immune System transform into plasma cells that synthesize and secrete specific antibodies. These are soluble globular proteins (immunoglobulins, Ig) found in blood and other body fluids that bear the same recognition structures as the original lymphocyte. Another population of very important antigen-presenting cells comprises dendritic cells, which are strikingly proficient in taking up soluble molecules. Some T cells become memory cells, whereas others initiate a number of important functions of the adaptive immune system. Without help from T cells, B cells usually produce only the largest, macroglobulin form of antibody, IgM. With T cell help, class switching occurs, so that B cells secrete a different class of antibody, the smaller IgG molecules that can more readily distribute themselves across the tissues or pass through the placenta. At the same time, B cells go through a selective process whereby antibodies of increasing affinity for their respective antigenic determinants are produced, a process referred to as affinity maturation. In this way, antibodies of greater binding capabilities are gradually produced over time. These antibodies are especially prominent in secretions, such as saliva or mucosal fluid, where they are in a position to provide an early defence against invading microorganisms. In instances where autoimmune diseases are due primarily to the inflammatory damage, they are associated with Th1 responses, whereas in situations such as immediate hypersensitivity reactions, Th2 responses are predominant. This population of antibodies has a particular affinity for mast cells and basophils, cells that contain granules rich in histamine, serotonin, heparin, and other mediators of immediate allergic reactions. The release of these mediators can give rise in animals to anaphylactic reactions characterized by loss of vascular integrity, escape of intra- vascular fluids, hypovolaemic shock, and sometimes respiratory embarrassment and death. Similar reactions in humans can take the form of asthmatic attacks, hives, rhinitis, or gastrointestinal distress. The reactions are characterized by high levels of antigen-specific IgE and can be demonstrated on humans by the appearance of a wheal and flare response to the particular antigen (or allergen) injected into the skin. Other adverse reactions can be produced when antibody binds to its counterpart antigen in the bloodstream. If not immediately taken up by phagocytic cells, these complexes can accumulate in capillary beds, such as those found in the skin, the lung, and especially the kidney. Such complexes are able to activate the complement system, inducing an inflammatory response, inflammation that can be extremely damaging to the surrounding tissues. Antibodies can also cause damage when they bind directly to antigens on the surface of tissue cells. Often, these antibodies are directed to autoantigens, as will be discussed in a subsequent section. The cell may suffer injury through activation of complement or through phagocytosis. Such cytotoxic reactions are particularly important in controlling infections that reside within cells — for example, infections induced by viruses and other intracellular pathogens. Some of them are important in amplifying the immune response itself — for example, by influencing the class of antibody produced. Since these reactions depend upon the migration of cells to the site of the response or local cell proliferation, they appear relatively slowly (requiring two to four days) and are referred to as delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
Clomiphene citrate and dexamethasone in treatment of clomi- phene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective placebo- controlled study buy generic sporanox online. A randomized clinical trial of treatment of clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation with the use of oral contraceptive pill suppression and repeat clomiphene citrate treatment buy 100 mg sporanox overnight delivery. Effect of ejaculatory abstinence period on the pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination discount sporanox 100mg without a prescription. Effect of the total motile sperm count on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization. Efficacy of superovulation and intrauterine insemination in the treatment of infertility. Laparoscopic drilling by diathermy or laser for ovulation induction in anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Although it is challenging to predict the rate of an individual’s menarche only about 400,000 follicles ovarian reserve decline, clinicians are often asked for advice about fertility potential and/ are left due to natural follicular atresia. The purpose of As a woman reaches her mid-30s the this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian reserve testing, providing a pace of oocyte depletion begins to in- guide for the obstetrician/gynecologist generalist and reproductive endocrinologist. The crease and by the time she reaches her ideal ovarian reserve test should be convenient, be reproducible, display little if any late 30s, the number of follicles declines intracycle and intercycle variability, and demonstrate high speciﬁcity to minimize the risk to approximately 25,000, concomitant of wrongly diagnosing women as having diminished ovarian reserve and accurately with a signiﬁcant increase in miscarriage identify those at greatest risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation prior to fertility rate. Evaluation of ovarian reserve can help to identify patients who will have poor traditionally been used to describe a response or hyperresponse to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. However, patients regarding their reproductive lifespan and menopausal timing as well as aid in the commonly used ovarian reserve markers counselling and selection of treatment for female cancer patients of reproductive age serve as a proxy for oocyte quantity but who receive gonadotoxic therapy. In addition, it may aid in establishing the diagnosis of are considered poor predictors of oocyte polycystic ovary syndrome and provide insight into its severity. Therefore, modern usage of the perfect ovarian reserve test, both antral follicular count and antimu¨llerian hormone have term pertains to the quantity of good predictive value and are superior to day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone. The con- remaining oocytes rather than oocyte venience of untimed sampling, age-speciﬁc values, availability of an automated platform, quality, for which age still remains the and potential standardization of antimu¨llerian hormone assay make this test the preferred best predictor. They include substance/antimüllerianhormone indetermining asked for advice about fertility potential both biochemical basal and provocative ovarian reserve. The agonist trigger, cabergoline, freeze all) as therefore help decrease the incidence other biochemical markers that have well as patient appropriate counseling to of falseenegative testing. The ideal ovarian levels reach a nadir, offering a glimpse sitive (3-65%) using similar cut-offs 14,15 reserve test should be affordable, to the unsuppressed hypothalamus- (Table 1). In a relate to assay variability and lack of would have conservatively expected an systematic review of studies in women standardized international assay. Such a lower observed value in found to have sensitivities ranging be- antibodies and reported very different the context of the rest of a patient’s his- tween 44-97% and speciﬁcities ranging results, using different units. That tory (ie, smoking or early onset of between 41-100% for prediction of poor problem was thought to be resolved by menopause of her mother) may point to 4 ovarian response. Its precision is Endometriosis Decrease130,131 compromised with overweight and obese individuals or when using multi- Granulosa cell tumor Increase132,133 3,15 ple sonographers. Moreover, greater intracycle thus, is an earlier, more sensitive real- intracycle variation. Polycystic ovarian syndrome Who should get ovarian reserve Women considering elective (social egg) freezing testing and how to use it in clinical Oocyte donors practice? In such cases, a dis- 39-41 cussion with the patient about the reproductive-age women. At baseline, life issue, and the ability to predict without late luteal presuppression women were aged 42-52 years and which patients may lose their fertility antagonist with high starting dose of blood was collected serially until the or ovarian function as a result of gonadotropins). This important is currently 30 years of age in the Western Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can outcome should be the focus of future world, with a further 1 in 5 women not both have deleterious effects on investigations in this ﬁeld. How- theseprognosticsystemsweredevel- ever, contrary to this argument, a recent oped in breast cancer patients, and the Ovarian reserve screening for the study showed that bankers and non- systemic effects of differing forms of general reproductive-age female bankers of oocytes have a surprising cancer and their treatment vary, it is population? Therefore, the general female population will un- oocytes does not appear to inﬂuence the further research into different types of dergo accelerated loss of ovarian reserve life choices of the women. The study malignancies and treatment regimens leading to loss of fertility from their mid- provides insights into the important is required to build up a panel of 30s and early menopause by age 45 psychological aspect of reassurance 108,109 prognostic tools. In the past, this was of associated with preventive oocyte be emphasized that since the primary minimal concern from a public health banking, expressed by high satisfaction outcome of the research thus far has standpoint since most women had after banking in combination with a been posttreatment amenorrhea/pre- completed their family plans by their decreased intention of ever using 117 mature ovarian insufﬁciency, there is mide30s. Fertil banking is costly (w$10,000) and may and provide insight into disease severity. Jayaprakasan K, Campbell B, screening of the general population of ideal ovarian reserve test should be Hopkisson J, Clewes J, Johnson I, Raine- Fenning N. Establishing the intercycle vari- reproductive-age women argue that it convenient, be reproducible, display lit- 118 ability of three-dimensional ultrasonographic may offer several advantages. Fertil Steril women identiﬁed as having low ovarian ability, and demonstrate high speciﬁcity 2008;90:2126-32. Second, women often disregard evaluation of ovarian reserve in most predictor of in vitro fertilization performance than generic advice to avoid delaying women. Taking a basal so that they themselves can determine if follicle-stimulating hormone history is essential and interpreting measures of ovarian reserve: ovarian reserve testing is useful in a committee opinion. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist- ommendations can be made, large hormone and ovarian reserve. Int J Endocrinol induced differences in granulosa cell cycle ki- longitudinal studies are needed to 2013;2013:818912. Cell 1994;79: change in determining ovarian reserve using response while minimizing safety risks. Ovarian response Control of primordial follicle recruitment by anti- biomarkers: physiology and performance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab anti-mullerian hormone in normal women with a getting lost in the values. Correlation of ovarian reserve tests reserve testing and its potential clinical impli- improves in vitro fertilization outcome in low with histologically determined primordial follicle cations.
If a second angiogram also fails to reveal the and now studying about 200 patients per year with suspected aneurysm a third angiography might be intracranial aneurysms purchase discount sporanox on line, we have not seen an aneu- indicated after an interval of several months and rysm rupture during diagnostic angiography in the may then demonstrate the aneurysm (Rinkel et last 6 years cheap sporanox 100mg with amex. The risk of aneurysm rupture order cheap sporanox, however, may be If cerebral angiography is negative in a pattern increased during superselective aneurysmography. In addition, some irregularity at the tip of the basilar artery was noted but no real aneurysm. A recently developed technology of colour kidney disease (Schievink 1997; Schievink et al. Especially in small patients with intracranial aneurysms (Molyneux et aneurysms of less than 6 mm sensitivity is very poor al. Most patients were treated at high-volume centres in the United Kingdom, with the remainders from other European countries, Australia, Canada, and 5. The primary endpoint was patient Therapy outcome, deﬁned as a modiﬁed Rankin scale of 3–6 (dependent or deceased) at 1 year. Those patients treatment modality of choice for both ruptured and who were screened but not randomized were treated unruptured cerebral aneurysms since decades. Just surgically in 39%, endovascularly in 29% or by an unre- over 20 years ago endovascular treatment was mainly corded therapy (11%). Since the introduction of stopped after the results of a planned interim analysis controlled detachable coils for packing of aneurysms were available: at 1 year, 23. These have been results with an even greater absolute risk reduction of summarized up to March 1997 in a systematic review 8. More than 90% occlusion of the strongly recommend reading the statement written by aneurysm was achieved in around 90% of patients. The the Executive Committee of the American Society of most frequent procedural complication was cerebral Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology and ischemia, the second most frequent complication was the American Society of Neuroradiology (Derdeyn et aneurysm perforation, which occurred in about 2% al. Thus it would take more If one treatment is recommended over another, the than 40 years to overcome the beneﬁt seen at 1 year reasons for this decision should be documented as with endovascular treatment. First of all, the were reported from the European and Australasian easiest parts: There are two groups of unruptured aneu- arm of the tirilazad study (Lanzino et al. The former group also includes those the range of randomization rates given by other large aneurysms detected during angiography in patients studies. One possible explanation is rysms has been reported from 10% to 13% (Kojima that these aneurysms have a different natural history; et al. And, detection of aneurysms during life is they may form and subsequently rupture rapidly so increasing due to increased use of accurate imaging that the opportunity to detect these as unruptured methods and due to screening programs introduced, lesions is limited. Unfortunately, unruptured aneurysms are a het- A meta-analysis by Raaymakers et al. Technical feasibility in over 90% in 2003 – came out with a slightly different result: the our patient group and in those of other authors with critical size of the aneurysm was downsized to 7 mm a high occlusion rate justify comparison with neuro- and there were certain locations with an increased surgical data on unruptured aneurysms (Murayama risk of rupture per se: Posterior circulation aneu- et al. By comparing the results Other studies found the incidence of rupture of all of surgical clipping and coil embolization of 60 uni- coincidental aneurysms to be between 1% and 3. All these facts encourage us to use rupture include: multilobular aneurysm morphology the endovascular route instead of clipping in the vast (Hademenos et al. In cases of a ruptured aneurysm in another loca- 2003), symptoms related to mass effect, and female tion the relative risk of rupture of an additional non- sex, smoking and hypertension. However, in this speciﬁc subgroup there are different opinions about the best strategy (Inagawa et al. They conclude that screening is not warranted at this time since the slight increase in life expectancy does not offset the risk of postoperative sequelae (Raaymakers 2000). Wa rd l aw and White (2000) concluded that the indication and cost-effec- a tiveness of screening for aneurysms is totally unclear because prevalence varies, rupture rate is still unclear and non-invasive imaging modalities are not yet accurate enough to exclude aneurysms smaller than 5 mm. The major drawback of all these studies is that the results of endovascular treatment in unruptured aneurysms were not taken into account. Distal basilar artery aneurysms in a after embolization of an unruptured right paraophthalmic patient with right-sided oculomotor palsy aneurysm; the patient had no neurological symptoms Intracranial Aneurysms 179 at high volume hospitals length of stay was shorter and total hospital charges were signiﬁcantly lower. In conclusion, their recommendation to patients with unruptured aneurysms is to look for high-volume hospitals and physicians treating a high number of patients (Hoh et al. Currently, healthcare is undergoing a major reor- ganization to meet growing economic pressure and the aspect of preventive therapy becomes more and more important. Therefore, aneurysm treatment has to be considered in several respects: what is the risk of aneurysm rupture and what are the costs to treat a sub- arachnoid hemorrhage? Costs arising treating an aneurys- mal hemorrhage have to be weighted against the risk of rupture of an incidentally detected aneurysm. Regarding the cost-effectiveness and the fact that endovascular treatment has a lower morbidity and mortality than neurosurgically treated patients, in our opinion, unruptured cerebral aneurysms in any location should be considered ﬁrst for endovas- cular treatment. In most patients, such headache was not experienced ever before in life (“the worst headache of my life”). A warning leak, due to a ruptured Acom aneurysm in a patient with sudden deﬁned as a sudden episode of headache, vomiting, onset of a psychotic episode nuchal pain, dizziness or drowsiness, might precede this event in a considerable number (Hauerberg et al. These patients typically suffer from a fronto- puncture should reveal the cause of the disease. Therefore, cross sectional imaging is indi- to treat a ruptured aneurysm is obvious. The clinical categorization of patient‘s symptoms Very few patients do not experience the onset of was summarized by Hunt and Hess. Velpeu (1831) and Phillips (1832) independently described a method of introducing arterial thrombosis by inserting a needle into the aneurysmal lumen and withdrawing it after thrombus have formed. Through a transorbital approach, a silver wire was introduced and heated, causing arrest a of the aneurysmal bleeding. In 1963 Gallagher pro- posed a technique of inducing thrombosis of intra- cranial aneurysms by high-speed delivery of dog or horse hairs into the aneurysm using a pneumatic gun (“pilojection”) (Gallagher 1963, 1964; Gallagher and Baiz 1964).
A potential function of these additional proteins is that some generic 100mg sporanox otc, particularly those of low molecular weight order sporanox from india, may contribute to normal Several differences between aqueous humor and aqueous outflow resistance as they interact with the extracellular matrix of trabecular meshwork cheap sporanox online american express. This implies the existence of a specific active Normal aqueous humor also differs from plasma by a secretory mechanism, to be discussed below. The main nearly 30-fold increase in the level of ascorbate, due to active secretion. Sodium is transported as well as protection of the lens from ultraviolet radiation. Passage of aqueous humor into the posterior chamber is the electrochemical imbalance created by the trans- generally felt to occur through a combination of three port of sodium is corrected by negatively charged ions processes: ultrafiltration, active secretion, and diffusion. One of these ions is bicarbonate Ultrafiltration describes the movement of water and water- produced by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which cat- soluble substances across a cell membrane. This enzyme has been localized in the nonpigmented that exist between the capillaries and stroma within the cil- epithelium. Secretion is a metabolically active process stantially reduce aqueous production (see Chapter 38). Active transport of other ions, including Cl- and K+, It is unlikely that ultrafiltration across the ciliary also may contribute to the secretory process. This is supported by the marked dif- lial cells allow the movement of solutes between these ferences in composition between aqueous and plasma two layers, providing access for passive transport into the already mentioned, and several additional observations. These pass the In spite of these considerations, ultrafiltration repre- blood–aqueous barrier by simple or facilitated diffusion. This is the most likely mechanism by which plasma cornea establishes a concentration gradient that is the dri- constituents gain entry into the ciliary process stroma, ving force for the continued diffusion of these substances creating a pool upon which the active secretory processes into the posterior chamber. Therefore, the diffusion rate of within the epithelium can act to move solutes into the these substances does not depend upon the aqueous for- posterior chamber. However, a constant flow of aqueous is neces- are unusually permeable and the ultrafiltrate is rich in sary to flush out the waste products. This clearance rate is a function of the standing-gradient osmotic flow mechanism coupling the rate of flow of aqueous humor from the posterior water and solute transport. The measurement There are likely several secretory processes responsible does not account for any aqueous that leaves the posterior for active solute transport across the ciliary epithelium (see chamber by other routes such as through the vitreous Fig. This rate more than doubles structure of the ciliary epithelium related to accom- to 3. Intercellular junctions in the cil- increase aqueous humor formation in the iary epithelium. Intercellular junctions of the ciliary epithe- not fully account for the suppression of aque- lium in anterior uveitis. Ultrastructural studies of the blood– the magnitude of the suppression of aqueous flow aqueous barrier, I: transport of an electron dense during sleep is as great as the inhibitory effects by any tracer in the iris and ciliary body of the mouse. Invest Oph- ters that consistently increase aqueous formation in human thalmol Vis Sci 1978;17:1037. Physiologic basis of aqueous aqueous flow, but when given in conjunction with epi- humor formation. Rhesus monkey aqueous humor composition research is needed to understand the normal control of and a primate ocular perfusate. Am J Ophthal- tative and qualitative analyses of transferrin in aqueous mol 1984;97:372–383. The ultrastructure of the capillaries in the Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991;32:2201. Volume regulation of and fibrinolytic components in primary and plasmoid nonpigmented cells from ciliary epithelium. J Gen Physiol 1967;50: tomedin-related glycoprotein cloned from glucocorti- 2061–2083. Graefe’s cular biology of the trabecular meshwork inducible Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1983;220:285. Invest Ophthal- the presence and properties of myocilin in the aque- mol 1965;4:83. The tion of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C in the source of protein in the aqueous humor of the normal epithelium of the human ciliary processes. Cellular response to drugs affecting source of proteins in the aqueous humor of the nor- aqueous dynamics. Steady-state concentrations of aqueous outflow resistance in the bovine and human potassium in the ocular fluids. Electrical “fines” hypothesis of primary open-angle glaucoma: membrane properties of a cell clone derived from the possible role of alpha-crystallin. Chemical composition of human aqueous aqueous humor flow in humans is not blocked by bright humor: effects of acetazolamide. Blood circulation and fluid dynamics in the dynamics: implications for addressing glaucoma. Combined corti- dynamics of myoglobin, albumin and gammaglobulin costeroid and catecholamine stimulation of aqueous in the uvea. Viewed in cross section, the trabecular Aqueous outflow occurs through both conventional meshwork is a triangular, porous structure that spans the and unconventional routes. In the former, aqueous moves opening of the internal scleral sulcus and overlies through the trabecular meshwork and into Schlemm’s Schlemm’s canal. From there, aqueous escapes through the sclera via emissary canals that con- the uveoscleral meshwork lies most internal, forming the tain ciliary nerves, perforating ciliary vessels and vortex lateral border of the anterior chamber. Most of our knowledge of aqueous humor outflow bands of connective tissue that are covered with endothe- in the normal eye is based on our understanding of fac- lium, with large intervening spaces that measure between tors that modulate the conventional system. Although meshwork and has similar characteristics, described in increased ciliary muscle tone improves conventional out- the following text.
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You might not feel ready to go back to work even though the healing of the brain and body has gone well cheap sporanox 100 mg otc. Maybe you want to return to work because it will help to make you feel normal even though you still have challenges purchase sporanox us. Although going back to work can be an important step in recovery purchase online sporanox, nobody can predict for sure when you will be ready for it. This is why it is important to talk about this decision with your family and with your primary care provider. The primary care provider can help you if you decide to take more time to recover. For patients with no insurance, benefits or savings, Ontario Works is a government program that can help to support you through the time off work. Your family Sometimes, patients are more concerned about the reactions and worries of their family members than they are about themselves. When someone suffers an aneurysm, everyone who loves and cares for them is affected — a spouse, partner, children, siblings and friends. Sometimes, returning to loving relationships and social activities can be hard: • Family members may treat you as though you are fragile or not able to do many things for yourself (sometimes this might be true but, usually, you can do much for yourself) • Often caregivers become tired and emotionally drained themselves In these situations, try to understand that your family members also need comfort and support. If your aneurysm burst during sex (or during a bowel movement, which is common), having aneurysm clipping or coiling surgery has fixed your problem and you are no longer at risk during either of these activities! If you need help coping with these fears, it is important to speak to your primary care provider, a qualified psychologist, social worker, or other licensed health care provider. This can include a: • Spouse or other significant partner • Relative • Friend • Professional caregiver Caregivers are great support and can be very helpful in recovery. It is always wonderful for the patient to be able to go home but, as a caregiver, you may have felt stress during the patient’s hospital stay. Before discharge from hospital, the health care team will talk with you about the patient’s medical needs. It is important that you understand these needs and feel sure that you can help the patient properly. Here is a short list of what’s most important: • If you need help finding a place to stay while in Toronto, ask the social worker or ward clerk for our list of places to stay near the hospital or search check our website Work with medical communities to provide support networks for patients and families. We prepared this booklet to provide you and your loved ones with accurate, timely information about brain aneurysm detection and treatment. Our goal is to help reduce the anxiety and isolation you may be feeling so that you can focus on your treatment and recovery. About six million people in the United States — or one in every 50 people in this country — have an unruptured brain aneurysm. The annual rate of ruptured aneurysms in the United States is about eight to 10 in every 100,000 people, or about 30,000 people a year. Fortunately today there are a number of efective treatments, including surgical and minimally invasive options, for patients with brain aneurysms. Research is also under way, some funded by the Brain Aneurysm Foundation, to better understand the underlying causes of brain aneurysms, find new treatments, and improve existing treatments. Types Saccular aneurysms, also called “berry” aneurysms because they look like berries, are the most common type of brain aneurysm. Saccular aneurysms have a “neck” that connects the aneurysm to its main (“parent”) artery and a larger, rounded area called the dome. A less common type is a fusiform aneurysm, in which the artery is widened on both sides. Anatomy of a brain aneurysm Berry aneurysm 5 Causes/Risk Factors Brain aneurysms develop silently. Some people may have inherited a tendency for weak blood vessels, which may lead to the development of aneurysms. Aneurysms in children are rare, and most aneurysms probably develop as a result of wear and tear on the arteries throughout a person’s lifetime. Occasionally, severe head trauma or infection may lead to the development of an aneurysm. Two of the most significant are, fortunately, ones that can be controlled: cigarette smoking and high blood pressure (hypertension) Others are: age (over 40), drug use (particularly cocaine), excessive alcohol use, gender (women have a higher risk), and race (people of color have a higher risk). Wide neck berry aneurysm Fusiform aneurysm 6 Familial Aneurysms In most cases, brain aneurysms are not hereditary, and there is generally only a single case in a family. Occasionally, however, an individual with a brain aneurysm will have other family members who are afected. When two or more first-degree relatives (parent, child, or sibling) have proven aneurysms, these are called “familial aneurysms. Therefore aneurysm screening with an imaging study of the brain arteries is usually recommended, particularly for first-degree relatives. If an aneurysm is found, the specialist will work with you to determine if the aneurysm should be treated and, if so, what type of treatment to have. Data from a large study of familial aneurysms (the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm Study) indicate that there is a 20 percent incidence of aneurysms in first-degree relatives of patients with a familial aneurysm. Family members most likely to have aneurysms were women or individuals who had a history of smoking and/or high blood pressure.