Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
Etiologic agent distributions require interventions that minimize transmission of endocarditis buy discount albuterol 100mcg on line symptoms 0f asthma. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Executive Summary Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 6 • Although the overall burden was similar between Strengths and weaknesses Interpretation and recommendations males and females buy albuterol 100 mcg otc asthma definition emedicine, marked diferences in sex The study is a thorough examination of the burden • Further work is required to albuterol 100 mcg on-line asthma symptoms at 30 improve the specifc burden were noted for certain pathogens of infectious diseases. Identifcation of such limitations was indeed • The ranking of infectious diseases was similar an objective of the study. Our approach had similar multitude of considerations necessary for setting to that reported in a European pilot study** that priorities for future action. This provides restricted to the health burden and not economic decision-making, identify areas of future some validation of our methods. Tese fndings can assist the exclusion of certain important infectious agents, planners, decision-makers, practitioners and syndromes and health states; and the burden of researchers in their eforts to improve the health undiagnosed and unreported cases. Jamison at the World Bank in the 1993 World mission of the Ontario Agency for Health Protection Development Report. Inform priority setting, planning and methods used in this study do not permit such an burden of disease study with a focused assessment of decision-making. Novel methods are needed infectious diseases, resulting in the Ontario Burden of 3. Identify strengths and weaknesses of existing data Finally, this report does not include an assessment very little research has previously been conducted in on infectious diseases in Ontario, and defne areas of the success of interventions. For example, we Ontario or Canada to quantify the burden of infectious requiring improvement. A study dedicated to infectious disease would interventions such as vaccination programs, early fll that knowledge gap and provide an in-depth antibiotic treatment for invasive bacterial disease picture of a larger number of infectious agents than has Tere are a number of limitations to burden of and hospital infection control. In general, vaccine-preventable Future reports will examine the burden of mental and weaknesses was made an objective of the study. Furthermore, while we were Furthermore, several of the infections which we for the most part able to assess the disease burden identifed as having signifcant burden are also those associated with health care utilization, we were for which new vaccines are under development. An generally not able to include the economic, societal important complementary study to carry out would and individual impacts of many mild but commonly be an investigation of the number of lives saved and occurring infections that do not come to the attention morbidity prevented through various intervention of clinical or public health services. The fndings of this that these are of great economic signifcance and report support continued investments in all these deserve consideration at a later stage. This compare the burdens associated with occurring before a pre-specifed life expectancy committee identifed the disease groups and diseases/ (premature mortality) and the reduced functioning agents to include in the study. Members from this different diseases it is necessary to or suboptimal state of health associated with diseases group and other experts formed smaller disease quantify the burden for each disease or injuries. They also population health and some specifed norm or reviewed the data collected to ensure plausibility and of population health. Epidemiologic studies were most ofen each infectious disease required the following steps: for each age group for each infectious agent/disease. A detailed description of the natural history of agent, the number of deaths in an age group due to each disease and its associated health states was a particular cause is multiplied by L, the standard determined. Information on health state incidence was collected from Ontario data when available and/ Ic,h,a,s = incident cases by cause (c), health state proportionally redistributed to relevant causes. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 2 / Overall Methods Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion Social value choices uniform age weights were used to give the highest longer term benefts, in favour of acute therapeutic 11 weight to years lost in young adulthood. However, the use of age weights to this controversy, the current analysis was conducted 1. However, was set at 80 years based on the presumed biological future life years at a rate of 3%. Using this discount there was incomplete alignment between diseases diference between the two sexes (2. However, as for each health state under investigation using the stated previously, we did not discount in this study. A more detailed perfect health) that are generated through preference weights from previous studies) for the top 20 most description of the methods used to generate the exercises using techniques such as the standard burdensome infectious agents. As described above, age weighting based studies, we did not feel it was appropriate to applies more weight to the disease burden afficting working-age adults. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 2 / Overall Methods Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 2. Consequently, we used the three most current Incidence-based approach pneumoniae by attributing a certain proportion of years of available data, as follows: cases of and deaths from pneumonia, septicaemia, In the incidence-based approach to disease burden acute otitis media and other conditions to S. This approach facilitates the estimation year and all health outcomes (including those in Reportable disease: 2005-2007 of the potential impact of additional pathogen-specifc future years) are assigned to the initial event. However, to also allow comparability utilization: incidence, mortality and progression of diseases with other burden of disease studies and to assess Cancer registry: 2005-2007 will be unchanged over time. The incidence-based the impact of non-pathogen-specifc interventions, approach contrasts with the prevalence-based such as smoking cessation for pneumonia prevention, approach in which the health status of a population estimates of the burden of selected syndromes were at a specifc point of time is assessed, possibly 2. Due to legal reporting requirements, and signs which may be caused by several diferent annual disease incidence and mortality. Mortality records for Ontario identifer (encrypted health card number) allows for are known to underestimate burden of disease, residents who died outside of the province are not de-identifed linkage of individuals across datasets. Hospital; and 4) death certifcates with cancer as hand, not all infectious diseases included in the the underlying cause of death. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 2 / Overall Methods Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion Evaluating evidence from 2.
Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 54 Exhibit 4 albuterol 100mcg mastercard asthma symptoms 2 yr old. The burden was relatively equal from the assignment of non-specifc events in Ontario between males and females buy discount albuterol 100 mcg line asthma treatment images. Bacterial meningitis vital statistics and health care utilization data using was the most prominent health state caused by N order albuterol 100mcg mastercard asthmatic bronchitis dx code. Using Our methodology does not capture changing disease the syndrome-based approach, we estimated 108 incidence over time, and there is some evidence meningococcal meningitis episodes per year. The spectrum of epidemiologic studies to determine the percentage of illnesses caused by these pathogens is relatively each syndrome attributable to other gram-negative similar to those described for E. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 56 Exhibit 4. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion Estimated burden Limitations 57 We estimated annual averages of 400 deaths and Tese estimates for the burden of other gram 83,532 health care utilization episodes attributable negative bacteria are limited by the numerous sources to other gram-negative bacteria. Due to the lack of other gram-negative bacteria afects individuals of comprehensive laboratory data, we are unable aged 65 or older, which can likely be attributed to a to determine the fraction of the burden related to large number of deaths due to urinary tract infection drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. A large number of septicaemia pathogens highlights another important limitation and pneumonia deaths attributable to other gram of our methodology: we have not distinguished negative bacteria also contribute to the burden of these community-acquired infections from hospital infectious agents in the elderly. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 58 4. Most of the burden due to other care utilization data using attributable fractions of the syndromes other gram-positive bacteria most gram-positive bacteria was in those aged 65 or older, from various epidemiologic studies. We used cause of endocarditis but not cystitis; Staphylococcus epidemiologic studies to determine the percentage of saprophyticus is a common cause of cystitis but not each syndrome attributable to other gram-positive endocarditis; Enterococcus is a common cause of both bacteria (to estimate both deaths and incident cases) of these syndromes. Hepatitis A is distinct from B and C in terms of route of transmission, prognosis Hepatitis C virus and epidemiology. It causes only acute viral hepatitis; Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis A virus hepatitis B and C may cause both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 60 4. We included and the general population) and taking into account patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (liver 100% of deaths coded as hepatitis C, 25% of life table mortality and deaths from competing cancer) (1–3% afer 30 years). Morris Sherman, March 5, 2010) incidence for each group was modeled from various remains the most common cause for liver transplants. Lastly, the investigators used other and unspecifed cirrhosis, portal hypertension, published transition parameters and a Markov model hepatorenal syndrome and esophageal varices). Another limitation of that proportion matched precisely data from a global these estimates is that the mortality burden derived liver cancer and primary cirrhosis study. We used epidemiologic studies 100% of deaths coded as hepatitis B, 55% of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). The vaccine is there were fve hepatitis A cases in the community for In recent years, outbreaks have been reported in also available for purchase among persons who travel every case that was diagnosed and reported. We used specifc risk groups: children, men who have sex with to high-risk countries. The disease burden Health State Percentage Duration Severity Weight Number of Cases attributed to hepatitis A is relatively similar between of Reported Expected to Hepatitis A Develop males and females and mostly afects individuals Cases per Year Health State between the ages of one and 44. We adjusted for underreporting of hepatitis A based on studies conducted in the United States Liver transplant 188 Modeled estimates 0. The validity of these time after transplantation estimates is also dependent on the quality of the reportable disease data. Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 66 4. Most infections resolve spontaneously in women or poor prognosis), treatment (surgery, radiation, Fifh, we assumed the reduction in functioning to be who are otherwise healthy; infections are typically chemotherapy and certain combinations of those similar when in remission, regardless of the treatment asymptomatic. Finally, we did and cancerous anogenital disease, as well as benign 89 modalities), and if death occurs within fve years, not consider recurrent cancers. Studies over palliative care and terminal care (last month of life) the past two decades have revealed that persistent The results of a study from Manitoba were used to attributable to the cancer. Five-year relative survival estimates cancer, pap smears are routinely used to screen for and treatment distributions were determined from abnormal cells that may lead to cervical cancer. Second, we simplifed the treatment used a syndrome-based approach to calculate disease options by not distinguishing between curative and burden. Tird, cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anal canal, penis we assumed that only the deaths that occurred and oropharynx. Joan Murphy, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada ** Personal communication. Bernard Cummings, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada *** Personal communication. Ian Poon, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 68 Exhibit 4. Data regarding the etiology cancer), 1,090 incident malignancies (528 cases of oropharyngeal cancers are emerging and more of cervical cancer, 45 cases of vaginal cancer, 67 precise estimates will likely be available in the future. Although relatively rare (prevalence estimated at Limitations one per 100,000 children), this condition can cause Most of the limitations have been outlined in the 98 substantial morbidity in afected individuals. In addition, the wide Ontario Burden of Infectious Disease Study Chapter 4 / Methods and Results by Infectious Agent Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion 4. To 99 the immune system, so that afer a prolonged latent adjusting for reporting delays and underreporting.
Purchase cheap albuterol on-line. Small Airways on Fire in Asthma & COPD.
Does social support from family and friends work as a buffer against reactions to order genuine albuterol line asthma treatment emergency room stressful life events such as terminal cancer purchase cheap albuterol on line asthma nebulizer. The first year of grief and bereavement in close family members to buy 100mcg albuterol fast delivery asthma or lung cancer individuals who have died of cancer. Factors affecting grief reactions in close family members to individuals who have died of cancer. Meta-analysis of the effects of psychosocial interventions on survival time in cancer patients. Evolution of the biopsychosocial model: Prospects and challenges for health psychology. Six months after discharge, however, short-term benefits from rehabilitation did not sustain. It has also been found that they experience significantly more psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression, than the general population (Schneider et al, 2010; Wagena et al, 2005). Pulmonary rehabilitation is administrated in inpatient, outpatient or home settings, or a variety of combinations of these. The primary goals of pulmonary rehabilitation are to (1) alleviate symptoms, (2) restore functional capabilities as much as possible and (3) reduce handicap, thus enhancing overall quality of life (Hill, 2006). This is thought to be caused by lack of motivation, significant cognitive impairment, inability to attend the program consistently, unstable medical condition that may pose risk or inadequate financial resources (Hill, 2006). Most studies of rehabilitation have been performed in outpatient settings (Derom, Marchand & Troosters, 2007; Lacasse et al, 2006), with only 10% of all pulmonary rehabilitation literature referring to effects obtained in inpatient settings (Clini & Romagnoli, 2005). Material and methods Design the present study has a prospective, quasi-experimental, and longitudinal design. Short and long-term effects of rehabilitation were assessed through a One-Group Pretest-Posttest design, with measurements at baseline (t1), 4 weeks (t2) and 6-month follow-up (t3). Prior to this study, they all have been encouraged to participate in a rehabilitation programme by their physician. Of their own accord, they selected inpatient rehabilitation (n=161) or ordinary outpatient consultations (n=44). The response-rate was 67% in the rehabilitation group and 42 % in the outpatient group. Between t1 and t2, 25 patients in the rehabilitation group dropped out from the study because of withdrawal, death, discontinued stay or an unknown reason, which left 136 eligible patients at t2, a response-rate of 84%. Between t2 and t3, 25 patients dropped out because of withdrawal, death or an unknown reason, which left 111 patients at t3, a response-rate of 82%. Data collection procedure the potential participants in the rehabilitation group were given oral and written information about the study a few days after attending the rehabilitation centre. The patients who wanted to participate returned the questionnaires and the signed written consent form in a postage paid envelope to the researcher. The potential participants in the outpatient group were orally 113 informed about the study by the pneumologists during ordinary outpatient consultation. The information they were to give the patients was based on a written and oral presentation from the principal researcher to all three pneumologists. The patients who wanted to participate were also given written information about the study when they received the questionnaires. After initial evaluation by a physician, a multidisciplinary team (consisting of physician, nurses, physiotherapists, assistant occupational therapists, social workers and ergonomists) assessed the patient and formulated an individualized rehabilitation plan, including training intensity based on patient’s medical condition. The rehabilitation program comprised medical, physical, educational, psychosocial and practical/technical activities, which were organized both as group based treatment and individual counselling. All tests were conducted indoors, on flat, straight corridors and performed in accordance with published guidelines (American Thoracic Society, 2002). Scores for the two components can also be added together to give a composite anxiety-depression score with a maximum of 42 points (total score). Socio-demography and co-morbidity the questionnaire also contained items about socio-demographic characteristics and on self reported co-morbidity. Co-morbidity was defined as specific diseases and disorders in the past twelve months, with “yes/no” response to different diseases listed in the form. Number of co-morbidities were categorised in no co-morbidity, 1-4 and 5-8 additional diseases. The participants were informed that participation in the study would not hinder their present or future medical treatment. Men and women were nearly equally represented in the rehabilitation group (49% men vs. The outpatients received more psychological support from spouse/partner than patients in the rehabilitation group (70. Hence, to identify physical and psychological health, as well as psychosocial factors are important when assessing the need for and encouraging participation in 118 rehabilitation. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation at an early stage of the disease may therefore be beneficial as it allows for greater emphasis on promoting health rather than regaining function. An important assumption, however, is that domestic conditions and environmental resources of the patients should be detected by professionals in the rehabilitation services and communicated to the primary care, which requires close collaboration among professionals in rehabilitation services and primary care (Nici et al, 2009). The purpose of this priority is to promote access to rehabilitation where people live; implying enhanced municipal responsibility for rehabilitation services. This finding may seem rather contradictory to the protective role of a spouse/partner through care, support and encouragement, leading to improved compliance with therapies and better disease self-management for the patient (Crockett et al, 2002). On the other hand, a life partner may also be too protective and careful in his or her care in such a way that necessary efforts to maintain or improve the positive effects of rehabilitation are hindered (Halding, Wahl & Heggdal, 2010). In other words, implementation of family participation in the rehabilitation program may enable spouse or partner to motivate and support activities that are considered necessary to maintain or improve effects obtained through rehabilitation. Characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease choosing rehabilitation. Relapse of health related quality of life and psychological health in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 6 months after rehabilitation.
Today buy albuterol 100 mcg amex asthma treatment over the counter, protein hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic reaction are free of the chlorine residues formed when acid hydrolysis is used generic 100mcg albuterol amex asthmatic bronchitis icd 9 code. Enzymes allow for better yields by transforming or releasing specifc molecules from the plant matrices (use of pectinases trusted albuterol 100 mcg asthma treatment clinic, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucanase, lipases, transferases, esterases, etc. Synthetic biology, or microorganism-assisted synthesis, a tool long used in the pharmaceutical indus try, is now coming to cosmetics. Microorganisms, wild type or genetically modifed, now produce many ingredients used in cosmetics. The frst application of this technology was the industrial production of the oncology drug taxol, thereby avoiding the harvest of endangered yew trees. The tech nique is now widely used to produce cosmetic ingredients, whether they are from endangered plants or to produce low-occurring phytochemicals. Formulating botanical extracts in emulsions is an art, balancing the product esthetics, the activity of the extract, and the chemical stability of its constituents. For example, Lilium bulb oil extract use for sunburns has been reported since ancient Greece, whereas the water extract has been shown to be toxic. Natural ingredients have been shown to have a broad spectrum of activity, including hallucinogenic mushrooms and cardiotonic Belladona. Scientifc research conducted on plant extracts described in traditional pharmacopeias44,45 has led to a broader range of potential applications. In cosmetics, botanical extracts are used to improve skin moisturization, reduce the signs of aging or cellulite, brighten and sooth the skin, and make scars less noticeable. Moreover, botanical extracts are coming back in drug dis covery, helping to treat diseases for which pure organic chemistry has failed to deliver effective solutions. Visible skin infammation or redness can be triggered by multiple factors such as an infection. Their long unsaturated carbon chains contribute to cell membrane fuidity, an enabler to cell signaling. They have anti-infammatory and immune-modulatory activities, competing with arachidonic acid in the production of infamma tory mediators. Moreover, topical application of a linoleic acid-rich sunfower oil has been shown to be effective in restoring the barrier function upon disruption. Many also contain a non-saponifable fraction rich in tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolics. For instance, Argania spinosa (argan) oil is particularly rich in -tocopherols,57 a vitamin E isomer known for its anti infammatory properties. A number of plant waxes (sugar cane, Carnauba, Ceroxylon, Jojoba, rose) are used to protect lips, hands, or face from dehydration, providing an occlusive effect. Ceramides are critical constituents of the stratum corneum structure, comprising about 50% of its lipids and giving it its barrier function. These may be used for their action on skin or hair to provide hydration or reconstitute epidermal barrier function. While ceramides are challenging to deliver into the skin, some botanical extracts, such as Eucalyptus extract60 or red ginseng,61 are able to stimulate their synthesis in situ. Yet, certain plant extracts rich in polysaccharides, such as aloe vera extract (Aloe barbadensis)62 and Tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica),63 are used to trap moisture in the upper layers of the stratum cor neum by forming a thin flm. The phenolics class of phytochemicals is among the most diverse and also richest in effective anti infammatory compounds. Phenolics are also potent antioxidants and will provide signifcant protection against oxidation in the aqueous compartments. Some of the most noteworthy phenolics are catechins (green tea), proanthocyanidins (pine bark, grape seed), avenanthramides (oat kernel), favonoids (silyma rin, quercetin), stilbenoids (resveratrol), chalcones (licochalcone in licorice extract), ferulic acid (rice), and oleuropein (olive leaf). The sesquiterpene alpha-bisabolol (from the wood of Eremanthus erythropappus, Candeia, or Matricaria recutita, German chamomile) is commonly used for its soothing property. For instance, the proanthocyanidins from pine bark or grape seed cross-link the colla gen fbers, rendering them more resistant to degradation. While they are often called “fruit acids” due to their occurrence in fruits like apple, lemon, orange (and most fruits of the citrus genus), bilberry, and blackcurrant, they can also come from plant parts such as in Saccharum offcinalis (sugar cane) juice (main source for glycolic acid) and Acer saccharum (sugar maple). Salicylic acid is extracted from the willow bark (Salix alba or Salix nigra) and wintergreen leaf oil (Gaultheria procumbens). They contribute to the elimination of dead cells from the skin surface, hydration, as well as cell renewal in facial, body, and even scalp care. While they promote epidermal cell renewal, they have been shown to plump dermis and epidermis by stimulating the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid. It was recently demonstrated that in addition to their antioxidant properties, they also stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fbroblasts. Moreover, skin is composed of molecules that can be easily oxidized (unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, endogenous antioxidants). In a normal state, skin homeostasis, a balance between the endog enous antioxidants and the oxidative environment, is maintained. Over time, these oxidative events are the triggers for many of the key changes characterizing skin aging, as well as infammatory reactions. However, under extreme conditions (high salinity, low pH, high sunlight, lack of nitrogen or phospho rus), they protect themselves by producing large concentrations of -carotene (and glycerol to protect against osmotic stress). The ponds become red, and the -carotene concentration can reach 14% of the dry weight. As frst shown by Mathews-Roth, carotenoids are providing photoprotective benefts to the skin. While it was long believed that carotenoids could only be metabolized into retinoids in erythrocytes and hepatocytes, it is now confrmed that this conversion also happens in the skin.
Here they form large complexes cheap albuterol master card asthma pictures, both with other proteo glycans order albuterol 100 mcg free shipping asthma zones red yellow green, hyaluronan order albuterol discount asthma ventilator, and with fbrous matrix proteins (such as collagen). They are also involved in regu lating the movement of molecules through the matrix. Cell recognition and adhesion involving many kinds of cell surface molecules operate via homotypic and/or heterotypic protein–protein and protein–carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of purifed proteoglycans revealed the presence of specifc acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight, containing7 fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and pyruvate and sulfate groups may represent a new class of primordial proteoglycans, called glyconectins. These lamellar sheets contribute to the barrier property of the stratum corneum and the epidermis. They contain derivatives of sphingosine bases in amide linkages with a variety of fatty acids. Hence, topical skin lipid supplementation may provide opportunities for controlling ceramide defciency and improving skin condition. A large number of sphingolipids have been isolated from various marine organisms, including algae, sponges, sea anemones, sea stars, tunicates, soft corals, etc. These were palyo sulfonoceramide A and palyosulfonoceramide B from specimens of zoanthids (coral reefs) Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis collected off Brazil’s northeastern coast. They are found in bound form in triglycerides, phospho lipids, glycosylceramides, and ceramides, which all play a vital role in formation of the epidermal perme ability barrier. In addition to their well-known role in energy generation and storage, fatty acids can be potent signaling molecules. Therefore, this bacterium can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosami noglycan-like compounds useful in the design of biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. Clinical trials to examine the impact of the fsh oils on the skin immunity of 79 healthy volunteers determined that taking a regular dose of fsh oils boosted skin immunity to sunlight. Specifcally, it reduced sunlight-induced suppression of the immune system (immunosuppression), which affects the body’s ability to fght skin cancer and infection. The continuous enzymatic produc tion of various desirable molecular weight chitosan oligosaccharides increases the dermatological appli cations for utilizing these biomaterials. By using different types of emulsions, chitin showed how chitin nano-fbrils can increase the reproduction of fbroblasts, with a subsequent increase in col lagen synthesis and in adenosine triphosphate production. Broadly classifed as brown, green, and red, they yield many pharmaceutical, cosmeceuti cal, and nutraceutical extracts and compounds, and are being actively researched for alternative biofuel applications. Seaweed extracts are considerably higher in various vitamins, minerals, and amino acids than land plants, and are actually used as plant growth accelerators (plant food). They are a source of many skin friendly nutrients such as polysaccharides (natural occurring polymers), lipids, glycolipids, nucleic acids, auxins, plorotannins, and catchethins, etc. Certain oceanic environments are highly valued for their cold, fast fowing, particularly nutri ent-rich and ideal seaweed growing environmental conditions. The Pacifc Northwest, Tasmanian, Alaskan, and Northern Atlantic waters have also been internationally recognized for yielding high quality seaweeds. Fucoidan contains galactose, glucuronic acid, xylose, and several other major constituents that give this substance its potential health benefts. This inhibitory activity limits tissue breakdown in infammatory settings caused by injury and disease and can even inhibit metastasis. The Pacifc Northwest species of Undaria is known as Alaria, and the Eastern Pacifc version is known as Ecklonia. It may support the persistence of stem cells to allow for better tissue regeneration. A study has concluded that the use of sulfated glycans including fucoidan promoted mobilization of long-term repopulating stem cells. The preparations of fucoidan, as well as the heparin, inhibited fbroblast proliferation at concentrations from 0. This data suggests that fucoidan has properties which may be benefcial in the treatment of wound healing. In their diabetic animal model, the investigations proved that a dressing containing fucoidan signifcantly increased the rate of healing of wounds compared to commercially available dressings. They suggest that fucoidan is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment for photoaging of the skin. Japanese research has determined that fucoidan mediated the suppression of IgE (allergen specifc anti bodies) in blood cells from patients with atopic dermatitis. The fucoidan formulation was shown to be as effective as dexamethasone, the commonly used corticosteroid treatment, which has signifcant draw backs for long-term use. They are excellent natural antioxidants and have a great poten tial for preventing free radical-mediated diseases. Scavenger receptors act as membrane-bound and soluble proteins that bind to macromolecular complexes and pathogens. In vascular tissues, scavenger receptors are implicated in regulating intracellular signaling, lipid accumulation, foam cell development, and cellular apoptosis or necrosis. Fucoidan has been found to bind to several scavenger receptors, thus inhibiting several receptor macrophages. Using tissue sections of human skin in ex vivo experiments, they also demonstrated that fucoidan is able to minimize human leukocyte elastase (enzyme that degrades a number of proteins including elastin) activity, resulting in the protection of the human skin elastic fber network against the enzymatic proteolysis due to this serine proteinase. These results suggest that fucoidan could be used for treating some infammatory pathologies in which uncon trolled extracellular matrix degradation takes place. In a recently published study, researchers investigated this bioactivity of fucoidan and determined that fucoidan reversibly inhibited tyrosinase by binding to both the free enzymes and the enzyme-substrate complex. The study found that fucoidan protects cells from pathogens by encouraging both innate and specifc immune responses.