Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
Discuss the theoretical movements of the ilium and sacrum that may occur during trunk forward bending purchase meclizine mastercard medicine x 2016, backward bending purchase meclizine 25 mg visa treatment 5ths disease, hip flexion buy meclizine 25mg line medicine plus, hip extension, and gait. After about the rst 60 degrees of trunk forward bending, the pelvis rotates anteriorly around the hip joints. The sacrum follows the lumbar spine to the extreme of flexion in both standing and sitting positions, when counternutation or backward nodding of the sacrum occurs. With hip flexion, rotation of the ilium occurs in a backward direction, and the opposite occurs with hip extension. Inman studied walking and describes posterior iliac rotation during hip flexion through the swing phase, which is accentuated by heel contact and initial loading. The sacrum seems to rotate forward about a diagonal axis, creating torsion on the side of loading at midstance. During the rst 10 years of life, the joint surfaces remain flat, but in the second and third decades the joints begin to develop uneven articular surfaces. By the third decade, the iliac surface has developed a convex ridge through the center of the joint surface with a corresponding ridge on the sacrum. By the fourth and fth decades, the joint surfaces become yellowed and roughened with plaque formation and peripheral joint erosions. By the sixth and seventh decades, the osteophytes enlarge and begin to interdigitate across the joint surface. The joint surfaces become irregular with deep erosions that sometimes expose Functional Anatomy of the Sacroiliac Joint 509 the subchondral bone. By the eighth decade, osteophyte interdigitation increases to the extent that some specimens exhibit true bony ankylosis. The joint surfaces demonstrate marked degenerative changes with diminished articular cartilage on both surfaces. Why does the sacroiliac joint begin as a plane mobile joint and progress toward a plane stable joint In the non–weight-bearing infant, the sacroiliac joint is not required to provide stability. As the child progresses to weight-bearing movements, the sacroiliac joint undergoes a transformation into a stable interlocking joint that serves as a force transmission center from the spine to the lower limbs and vice versa. Explain the standard views for radiographic evaluation of the sacroiliac joint and discuss the anatomic structures that are best visualized in each image. In the posterior oblique view, the entire margin of the joint space can be visualized. Assessment from this view includes extent of joint width, location of bony margins, and degenerative or brous changes within the joint. Studies tend to suggest a weak association between sacralization and low back pain. In a recent study of 1053 patients, 73% with cervical ribs had sacralization and 64% with sacralization had cervical ribs. The value of this information is that if a patient is determined to have either a cervical rib or sacralization, the clinician should be aware of the association, which may help with the differential diagnosis of musculoskeletal complaints. The gluteal muscles derive their arterial supply from the internal iliac arteries. Occlusion of the internal iliac can occur, which will cause ischemic pain in the gluteal region. Gluteal pain could be confused with sacroiliac pain; thus this information may be useful in the differential diagnosis of sacroiliac pain. Bogduk N: Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacrum, ed 3, New York, 1997, Churchill Livingstone. Greenman P: Principles of manual medicine, ed 2, Philadelphia, 1996, Williams & Wilkins. Sashin D: A critical analysis of the anatomy and the pathological changes of the sacroiliac joints, J Bone Joint Surg 12:891-910, 1930. Sturesson B et al: Movements of the sacroiliac joints: a roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis, Spine 14:162-165, 1989. Vleeming A et al: the posterior layer of the thoracol-lumbar fascia: its function in load transfer from spine to legs, Spine 20:753-758, 1995. Weisl H: the ligaments of the sacroiliac joint examined with particular reference to their function, Acta Anat 22:1-14, 1954. Lee distinguishes three types of pelvic girdle disorders: (1) hypomobility with or without pain, (2) hypermobility with or without pain, and (3) normal mobility with pain. Activities that produce posterior torsion stress on the sacroiliac joint include heavy lifting, falls on the ischial tuberosity, vertical thrusts on the extended leg (such as a sudden, unexpected step off a curb), and persistent postures (such as standing on one leg, bowling, and kicks that miss the ball or target. Sashin D: A critical analysis of the anatomy and the pathological changes of the sacroiliac joints, J Bone Joint Surg 12:891-910, 1930. Sturesson B et al: Movements of the sacroiliac joints: a roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis, Spine 14:162-165, 1989. Vleeming A et al: the posterior layer of the thoracol-lumbar fascia: its function in load transfer from spine to legs, Spine 20:753-758, 1995. Weisl H: the ligaments of the sacroiliac joint examined with particular reference to their function, Acta Anat 22:1-14, 1954. Lee distinguishes three types of pelvic girdle disorders: (1) hypomobility with or without pain, (2) hypermobility with or without pain, and (3) normal mobility with pain. Activities that produce posterior torsion stress on the sacroiliac joint include heavy lifting, falls on the ischial tuberosity, vertical thrusts on the extended leg (such as a sudden, unexpected step off a curb), and persistent postures (such as standing on one leg, bowling, and kicks that miss the ball or target.
Clinical Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria After a screening visit to determine eligibility (Visit 1) purchase meclizine 25 mg otc symptoms indigestion, the study started at Visit 2 with the first treatment (after randomization purchase 25 mg meclizine with amex treatment plan for depression. Enrollment in the clinical study (G050236) was limited to patients who met the following inclusion criteria: i meclizine 25mg without prescription medicine 606. Chronic proximal plantar fasciitis is defined as heel pain in the area of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial calcaneal tuberosity v. The following conservative treatments could have been completed as single, combined, or consecutive treatments: • Non-pharmacological treatments o Physical therapy (e. Willingness to keep a Subject Heel Pain Medication and Other Heel Pain Therapy Diary until 12 months after the last treatment xi. Willingness of females of childbearing potential to use contraceptive measures for 2 months after enrollment into the study b. Patients were not permitted to enroll in the clinical study if they met any of the any of the following exclusion criteria: i. History of rheumatic diseases, and/or collagenosis and/or metabolic disorders iii. Patients with a long-term (6 months duration) treatment with any corticosteroid x. Patients suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, severe cardiac, or respiratory disease xi. Patients suffering from coagulation disturbance and/or therapy with Phenoprocoumon, Acetylsalicylic acid, or Warfarin xii. Previous unsuccessful treatment of the painful heel with a similar shock wave device xvii. History of allergy or hypersensitivity to bupivacaine or local anesthetic sprays xviii. History or documented evidence of peripheral neuropathy such as nerve entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, etc. Participation in an investigational device study within 30 days prior to selection, or current inclusion in any other clinical study or research project xxvi. Patients who, in the opinion of the investigator, will be inappropriate for inclusion into this clinical study or will not comply with the requirements of the study xxvii. Patients suffering from tendon rupture, neurological, or vascular insufficiencies of the painful heel, as assessed using the Semmes Weinstein Monofilament test and the Ankle Brachial Index 2. At this visit, the decision was made whether a patient had a sufficient response to the extracorporeal shock wave treatment to continue in the study. Otherwise, the patient was discontinued from the study and may receive further treatment for painful heel as necessary. The treatment was repeated three (3) times approximately one week (± 4 days) apart (at Visits 1 or 2, 3, and 4. The study procedures, except for the treatment devices, were the same for all patients. The protocol specified up to 2000 impulses at each of the three (3) treatment visits. Subjects defined as responders are also being followed at Visits 7 (6 month) and 8 (12 Month. Safety and effectiveness data were analyzed through the Visit 6 (3 months) follow up performed for all subjects and the 12 month follow up of responders. Due to a possible pain sensation caused by the shock wave treatment, the applied energy was 2 increased smoothly from lowest energy level of 0. After these 500 introductory impulses, 2000 treatment impulses were performed with the regular working application 2 level of 0. The key time points are shown below in the tables for safety and effectiveness (Tables 7-12. Safety: Safety endpoints were adverse events (type, intensity, severity, relationship to treatment, etc. The safety population consisted of all subjects receiving at least one (1) treatment. Effectiveness: the determination of effectiveness was based on two (2) criteria: a composite score for pain (using a 10 cm or 100 mm visual analog scale) and Roles and Maudsley scores when measured at the 3-month follow up visit (Visit 6. The composite score is the sum of three (3) pain measurements for the following: i. Poor (Pain limiting activities) There were eight (8) secondary criteria for effectiveness criteria as follows: i. Satisfaction with the Outcome of the Treatment as rated by subjects on a 7-Point Numeric Rating Scale (at Visit 6 and 8 only) rated as very dissatisfied (-3), moderately dissatisfied (-2), slightly dissatisfied (-1), neutral (0), slightly satisfied (1), moderately satisfied (2), or very satisfied (3) iii. Willingness to recommend treatment as judged by patient (at visit 6 and 8 only): Yes/No iv. At the time of database lock, there were 126 subjects assigned to the Duolith Group and 124 subjects assigned to the Placebo Group. A total of 17 subjects discontinued the study prematurely before Visit 6 (3 month) (Duolith Group: 7 subjects, Placebo Group: 10 subjects. Table 4: Reasons for Premature Discontinuation of Patients in the Safety Population (by Treatment Group) Duolith Placebo Reason for Premature Total Group Group Discontinuation (N=250) (N=l26) (N=124) Worsening of condition 2 (1. Study Population Demographics & Baseline Parameters the demographics of the study population are typical for a primary study performed in the U. Differences between groups in demographic and baseline characteristics are minimal and the largest effect size (0. Treatment Characteristics: A majority of subjects in both groups completed the treatments without deviations (Duolith Group: 98. Five (5) subjects (Duolith Group: 2; Placebo Group: 3) were reported with treatment-related deviations at six (6) treatment sessions.
Definition Most of the other operations are associated with purchase meclizine toronto treatment hypercalcemia, in Conditions involving disorders of the bones and joints of some cases serious order meclizine 25mg mastercard medicine numbers, drawbacks generic meclizine 25mg online medicine checker. The overlapping of the the upper extremities that occur in growing children and subscapularis muscle and anterior capsular shrinkage re adolescents, generally in connection with overexertion. A posterior dislocation can occur after bone grafts or a rotational os teotomy of the coracoid according to Trillat. Basically, one should attempt to reconstruct resembling that of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease . The the disrupted anatomy rather than create a new pathology term »Panner’s disease« was then coined by Smith in 1964 by performing procedures outside the actual lesion. This condition affects children under 10 years of age with pain and swelling in the elbow area. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 74: pathogenic mechanism is probably similar to that of 890–6 3. An analysis of other forms of aseptic bone necrosis (Legg-Calve-Perthes family history. Gohlke F, Eulert J (1991) Operative Behandlung der vorderen dissected, the prognosis of the disease is good. Huber H, Gerber C (1994) Voluntary subluxation of the shoulder If a fragment threatens to break off (which is very rare in children. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 76: 118–22 in this age group), it should be refixed (if possible with 6. Kuroda S, Sumiyoshi T, Moriishi J, Maruta K, Ishige N (2001) the a resorbable polylactate screw) or (if this is not possible) natural course of a traumatic shoulder instability. Lawton R, Choudhury S, Mansat P, Cofield R, Stans A (2002) Pedi atric shoulder instability: presentation, findings, treatment, and outcomes. Osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum occurs in J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 75: 1185–92 older children and adolescents and is associated with 9. A lateral compression mechanism  is Joint Surg (Am) 74: 1242–4 usually involved, and this arises predominantly in athletic 10. Milgrom C, Mann G, Finestone A (1998) A prevalence study of events, gymnastics or throwing disciplines. J Shoulder Elbow symptoms include pain, swelling and movement restric Surg 7: p621–4 tion. J Bone disease, although the lesion is usually better demarcated Joint Surg (Br) 73: 941–6 ( Fig. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 75: 1175–84 Provided no fragment has broken off, the treatment 14. Postacchini F, Gumina S, Cinotti G (2000) Anterior shoulder dislo can remain conservative (with analgesics and immobiliz cation in adolescents. J Bone be imposed as a rule, since the consequences of the dis Joint Surg Am 79: 850–7 section can be very serious. If dissection threatens, or has bility of the shoulder in adolescents and young adults. Kawam M, Sinclair J, Letts M (1997) Recurrent posterior shoulder dislocation in children: the results of surgical management. J Pe the fragment must be resected, although this generally has diatr Orthop 17: 533 – 8 adverse consequences for elbow function. Clini cally, there is pain and swelling, while the x-ray shows irregular ossification of the capitellum and, in places, of the ulnar con dyle. The longstanding dissected fragment has led to deformation of the a b radial head. Brunner adolescence, however, this disease, which is not all that rare in adults, is typically the result of chronic overexerti Whereas the functions of the lower extremity can be on [1, 3, 7]. This may be observed in gymnasts, but also, clearly and simply defined in terms of standing, walking for example, in children on rollerblades who regularly and sitting, the use of the upper extremity – particularly crash into a wall, or in those who often chop wood. The numerous discriminating motor tasks, it also fulfils the first therapeutic measure is the imposition of a ban on function of a sensory organ. Depending on the particular the triggering activity, followed by the administration of clinical picture, children with neurological disorders not analgesics and immobilization of the wrist with a splint. Despite their References functional impairment, they attempt to perform the same 1. Cvitanich M, Solomons M (2004) Juvenile lunatomalacia is this activities with their two hands as unimpaired children of Kienbock’s disease J Hand Surg [Br 29:288-92 the same age and soon get into the habit of employing 2. Clin Orthop Relat Res:237-44 Consequently, before any treatment the orthopaedist 3. Iwasaki N, Minami A, Ishikawa J, Kato H, Minami M (2005) Radial must accurately establish to what extent the children osteotomies for teenage patients with Kienbock disease. Clin Or are handicapped by their neurological disorder and the thop Relat Res 439:116-22 associated functional problems and deformities, iden 4. J Am Acad employed and the extent to which their situation can be Orthop Surg 12:246-54 improved by treatment. Zenzai K, Shibata M, Endo N (2005) Long-term outcome of radial all these factors into consideration, a careful evaluation of shortening with or without ulnar shortening for treatment of Kien the disorder must incorporate the cosmetic expectations bock’s disease: a 13-25 year follow-up. Apart from the various types of sensory perception (superficial and deep sensation, pain and temperature sensation), two-point discrimination 3 and the hyperaesthesia must be examined. The expecta tions of the patient in respect of the treatment must be ex plained and discussed before any therapeutic measures are implemented in order to avoid subsequent disappointment and dissatisfaction.
Typically it is seen in infancy or early childhood as a prominent lump in the web of the neck cheap meclizine online amex treatment 31st october. The scapula often is hypoplastic meclizine 25mg with amex symptoms jaw cancer, abnormally shaped purchase generic meclizine on-line treatment zygomycetes, and malrotated so that the superomedial angle is curved anteriorly into the supraclavicular region and the inferior angle abuts the thoracic spine. Associated musculoskeletal deformities such as scoliosis, rib abnormalities, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and spina bida are common. It is a severe form of scapular dyskinesis associated with overuse syndrome and fatigue. Abnormal scapular movement or scapular dyskinesis can be observed during static or dynamic activities. Several clinical methods of measurement exist; one of the most common is the lateral scapular slide test, which measures the distance between T8 and the inferior angle of the scapula in three positions: (1) arm at side, (2) hands on waist, and (3) arms abducted to 90 degrees with maximal internal rotation. Intra-tester and inter-tester reliability measurements of this test have been reported at 0. Differences in vertical height between the affected and unaffected scapula should also be assessed to determine abnormal tilting or protraction. A bubble goniometer is used to determine vertical height differences between superomedial borders of the affected and unaffected scapula in centimeters. The rst step is to perform a complete neuromuscular examination of the shoulder girdle and cervical region. Based on the ndings, tight structures need to be stretched and weak structures 368 the Shoulder need to be strengthened. Strengthen the scapular protractors with resistance exercises that emphasize scapular protraction that activates the serratus anterior without overactivating the upper trapezius. One of the most important treatments is education about proper posture and typical movement of the scapula. Biofeedback techniques, such as mirrors, verbal cueing, tactile cueing, and video monitoring during exercises, are helpful for the patient to visualize the trunk and scapula. The patient benets by observing the trunk and scapula during exercises in order to learn how to voluntarily control scapular musculature. There are approximately 20 muscles attached to the scapula; however, those most involved in stabilization of the scapula against the thoracic wall are the rhomboids major and minor; upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles; serratus anterior; and the rotator cuff musculature. The muscular force couples mentioned previously should be the focus for rehabilitation. Strengthening and stabilization of these muscles will help reestablish neuromuscular pathways and aid in prevention of instability and secondary impingement, labral pathology, and certain overuse pathologies by maintaining glenohumeral joint congruency. In addition, forces generated from the lower extremity during throwing are transferred through the scapula to achieve increased power; thus the scapula is considered an integral part of the kinetic chain. All scapular rehabilitation should include a strong lower extremity and core strengthening program. Scapular winging is noted when the patient leans into a wall, supporting his or her weight with the arms, or when resistance is applied to outstretched arms as the patient attempts to forward flex. The entire medial and inferior border of the scapula lifts off the thoracic wall because of serratus anterior deciency. List the muscles that attach to the scapula, the peripheral nerves innervating each muscle, and the corresponding root levels. Long thoracic nerve palsy typically presents idiopathically without a history of macrotrauma. Several mechanisms have been described, such as surgical complications, viral illnesses, immunizations, and trauma (often a traction mechanism. Some patients have beneted from a shoulder orthotic that keeps the scapula pressed against the thoracic wall to relieve pain. Rehabilitation exercises should focus on maintaining range of motion during nerve recovery to prevent joint stiffness. Frequently long thoracic nerve palsy requires 1 year or longer for return to normal function. Long-term follow-up (6 years; range: 2 to 11 years) of iatrogenic long thoracic palsy reported residual symptoms in 25 of 26 patients. Eighty-one percent could not lift or pull heavy objects, 54% could not work with hands above shoulder level, and 58% could not participate in sports such as tennis and golf. Scapulothoracic dissociation results from severe trauma involving lateral displacement of the scapula. This injury typically is associated with motorcycle, motor vehicle, or farm implement accidents. Typical associated injuries are clavicle fracture, signicant neurovascular damage, and major trauma. A patient’s symptoms include severe shoulder and neck pain and a drooped shoulder after cervical lymph node resection. One complication of a lymph node or benign tumor removal is iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve. The injury typically involves the trapezius but often spares the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Trapezius weakness is often noted with the inability to lift the arm above horizontal, and the involved side presents with drooped posture. Patients describe signicant shoulder pain, with a sensation of heaviness or the feeling that the shoulder is being pulled out of socket on the involved side. Snapping scapula is attributed to friction between the mobile scapula with its attached soft tissues and the relatively stable thorax wall. The incidence of grating in the general population has been reported to be as high as 70%. Grating, loud snapping, or popping sounds associated with pain are thought to be pathologic.
Self-assessment allows participants to monitor their own progress through the course cheap meclizine 25 mg online medicine januvia. Question-and-answer format Teoretical knowledge is presented in a question-and-answer format buy generic meclizine 25mg on-line medications harmful to kidneys, which encourages the learner to actively participate in the learning process order meclizine master card medicine 5113 v. In this way, the participant is led step by step through the defnitions, causes, diagnosis, prevention, dangers and management of a particular problem. Participants should cover the answer for a few minutes with a piece of paper while thinking about the correct reply to each question. Simplifed fow diagrams are also used, where necessary, to indicate the correct approach to diagnosing or managing a particular problem. Each question is identifed with the number of the chapter, followed by the number of the question,. These facts are not used in the case studies or included in the multiple choice questions. Tese studies give the participant an opportunity to see the problem as it usually presents itself in the clinic or hospital. The participant should atempt to answer each question in the case study before reading the correct answer. Practical training Certain chapters contain skills workshops, which need to be practised by the participants (preferably in groups. The skills workshops, which are ofen illustrated with line drawings, list essential equipment and present step-by step instructions on how to perform each task. If participants aren’t familiar with a practical skill, they are encouraged to ask an appropriate medical or nursing colleague to demonstrate the clinical skill to them. In this way, senior personnel are encouraged to share their skills with their colleagues. Final examination On completion of each course, participants can take a 75-question, self managed multiple-choice examination. All the exam questions will be taken from the multiple-choice tests from the book. Participants need to achieve at least 80% in the examination in order to successfully complete the course. Successful candidates will be sent a certifcate which states that they have successfully completed that course. Contributors The developers of our learning materials are a multi-disciplinary team of nurses, midwives, obstetricians, neonatologists, and general paediatricians. Perinatal Education Trust Books developed by the Perinatal Education Programme are provided as cheaply as possible. Writing and updating the programme is both funded and managed on a non-proft basis by the Perinatal Education Trust. It aims to improve health and wellbeing, especially in poor communities, through afordable education for healthcare workers. To this end it provides fnancial support for the development and publishing of the Betercare series. Updating the course material Betercare learning materials are regularly updated to keep up with developments and changes in healthcare protocols. Course participants can make important contributions to the continual improvement of Betercare books by reporting factual or language errors, by identifying sections that are difcult to understand, and by suggesting additions or improvements to the contents. Please send any comments or suggestions to the Editor-in-Chief, Professor Dave Woods. You should redo the test afer you’ve worked through the unit, to evaluate what you have learned. Objectives When you have completed this unit you should be able to: • Defne failure to breathe well at birth. Newborn infants normally start to breathe well without assistance and ofen cry immediately afer birth. If an infant fails to establish adequate, sustained respiration afer delivery (gasps only or does not breathe at all) the infant is said to have failed to breathe well at birth. About 10% of all newborn infants fail to breathe well and require some assistance to start breathing well afer birth. Failure to breathe well will result in hypoxia if the infant is not rapidly resuscitated. Terefore failure to breathe well is an important cause of neonatal death if not managed correctly. Therefore the word asphyxia should be avoided as it is of very little help and is dificult to define. If the placenta fails to provide the fetus with enough oxygen, hypoxia will result and cause fetal distress. Similarly, with failure to breathe well afer delivery the infant will develop hypoxia if not correctly managed. As a result of hypoxia, before or afer delivery, the heart rate falls, central cyanosis develops and the infant becomes hypotonic (foppy) and unresponsive. However, fetal hypoxia may result in poor breathing at birth while poor breathing will result in hypoxia if the infant is not rapidly resuscitated. Many infants with fetal hypoxia during labour still manage to cry well at birth and, therefore, do not have poor breathing.
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The difference of 2 cm is acceptable for the knees cheap meclizine 25 mg otc symptoms 0f parkinsons disease, we rule that lengthening should not exceed 8 cm in each would only lengthen the femur in this case purchase meclizine us treatment vaginitis. We primarily lengthen If substantial differences of over 20 cm are anticipated purchase online meclizine nail treatment, both lower legs and only secondarily both upper legs. If then one should consider very carefully whether the attempt has to be discontinued after the first stage of lengthening is appropriate at all. Such patients usu the attempt, disproportionately long lower legs are much ally suffer from a longitudinal deficiency of the fibula more readily acceptable from the esthetic standpoint than. We therefore tend a fibular aplasia and the absence of the lateral rays to discourage patients with dwarfism from undergoing on the foot; chapters 3. Only if they still persist with their patients often have cruciate ligament aplasia, as well request are we prepared to perform this elaborate proce as major problems in stabilizing the ankle as a result dure. It is important for them to meet other patients who of the absent or dysplastic lateral malleolus. We stick have already undergone the procedure so that they have a to a relatively simple rule: If three or more rays are realistic idea of the impending mental and physical effort present in the foot, the possibility of lengthening can involved. We no longer use the temporary stapling diaphyseal osteotomy, lengthening with external fix method proposed by Blount since it is not very reliable. De ator, followed by packing of the distracted segment finitive epiphysiodesis cannot be performed until relatively with cancellous graft and plating (Wagner method. For several years we lengthening by an osteotomy (compactotomy) in the have been using a very simple percutaneous method of epi diaphyseal or metaphyseal area, callus distraction with physiodesis. Through a stab incision the germinative layer an external fixator (»callotasis«, »Ilizarov method«. We generally externally-controlled lengthening by means of a di advise against weight-bearing for the first three weeks. If aphyseal osteotomy and the fitting of an intramedul this is not possible however, full weight-bearing is also lary lengthening apparatus [3, 8, 17]. We have also performed this epiphysiodesis on both sides at the same time (in pa Callotasis according to Ilizarov’s method has gained the tients with macrosomia) with immediate postoperative full most widespread acceptance in recent years [5, 14, 20]. This method is also suitable for physeal the Wagner method is associated with too many com closure following a tumor resection on the other side. Here, plications, as has been shown not only by a study in our too, full weight-bearing is required from the outset. The difference between the Wagner method and Shortening osteotomy the Ilizarov method concerns not so much the lengthen Leg shortening of up to 4 cm for the femur and up to 3 ing apparatus, but rather the fact that a cancellous bone cm for the lower leg is possible. The most reliable type of graft is inserted and stabilized with a plate in the Wagner shortening procedure at femoral level is an intertrochan method after the appropriate length has been achieved teric osteotomy ( Fig. This is a non-biological tech sons, shortening only up to 3 cm or so is possible at this nique. A higher figure is only possible if the osteotomy is into weight-bearing bone only very slowly, fractures and performed in the shaft area, but the subsequent healing plate breakages were common. Shortening in excess of 4 Distraction epiphysiolysis has also failed to catch on, cm is not possible because the muscles would be weakened since premature physeal closure often occurs as a result of for a very long time postoperatively. However, the relative overlength of the muscles, the risk of thrombosis premature physeal closure means that the final amount of is also fairly high. This also applies to the lower leg, where lengthening is extremely difficult to predict, since short the osteotomy is usually performed through the diaphysis, ening then occurs after the lengthening. This involves an osteotomy with the chisel, with preservation of the medullary vessels. Principle of intertrochanteric shortening osteotomywith Z-shaped osteotomy and fixation with 90° angled blade plate. Medullary nails Internal medullary nails represent an attractive alternative as they also allow the length to be controlled externally. With the Albizzia nail (named for a fast-growing Mimosa tree), manual rotational movements of 20° must be made in order to produce the lengthening . The most elegant solution is the Fitbone nail, system a b in which a telescopic motorized medullary nail is length ened by remote control . Nor should the risk of complications be underes timated (they differ from those associated with external ings of the Ilizarov apparatus contrast with the much bet fixators, but they are also not negligible. Very precise corrections substantial lengthening, a weakening of the lengthening are possible with this tool. Only a small volved (with a high probability of secondary axial bow number of centers worldwide are authorized by the manu ing), if dysplasia of the knee or ankle is present, in which facturer to use the Fitbone nail. Recently we are now case the affected joint must be included, primarily or authorized to use the Fitbone nail in our hospital, our secondarily, in the treatment. We use the Monotube particu larly on the lower leg, provided the lengthened segments Fixator systems are not too long. These fixators can also be dynamized, We distinguish between the following basic options: which promotes callus formation. On the upper leg, rigid Ring fixators (Ilizarov-type), Taylor Spatial Frame, monolateral fixators are suitable only for the lengthening rigid monolateral fixators (e. Wagner apparatus, Or of fairly short segments, since axial varus deviations can thofix , Monotube ), readily occur at this level. An are generated these can lead to the mechanical failure of gulations in all directions can be corrected, and even ro the angulator. The disadvantages are the discomfort (particularly in the Mechanical testing of various fixator systems has shown upper leg) and edema formation. The esthetic shortcom that the monolateral fixator systems such as »Orthofix« or 566 4. But it is precisely the low mechanical produced by modifying the length of the telescopic rods.