Jeffrey A Brinker, M.D.
- Professor of Medicine
- Joint Appointment in Radiology and Radiological Science
In some cases discount propranolol 40mg mastercard arrhythmia from alcohol, a liver biopsy to purchase propranolol 40 mg with mastercard pulse pressure 70-80 monitor hepatic iron concentration may be indicated buy propranolol 80mg line blood pressure quit smoking. When using ferritin levels for investigation of iron overload or treatment assessment this information should be taken into account. Biological Variability of Transferrin Saturation and Unsaturated Iron-Binding Capacity. Diagnosis and Management of Hemochromatosis: 2011 Practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. The changing role of liver biopsy in diagnosis and management of haemochromatosis. Screening for Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Screening for hemochromatosis by measuring ferritin levels: a more effective approach. Chief Medical Officer, LifeLabs? Guidelines are reviewed every 5 years, or as the Philip Stuart, M. Gamma-Dynacare Medical Laboratories the comments of end users are essential to the Sheila Boss, Ph. Users must ensure that their own practices comply with all specific government policies and specific legislative and accreditation requirements that apply to their organizations. The Guideline is not meant to be construed as legal advice or be all inclusive on this topic. Given the complexity of legal requirements, users are reminded that whenever there is uncertainty regarding whether some aspect of a Guideline is appropriate for their practice or organization, further direction should be obtained from the Laboratory Director, their own professional association, college and/or legal counsel or appropriate government ministry. We assumed that the nonlinear decrease in serum ferritin was caused by serum ferritin increase in iron mobiliza tion. We detected the ferritin increased by utilizing the hemosiderin iron in iron removal and the ferritin reduced by transforming ferritin into hemosiderin in iron additions. The iron storing capacity of hemosiderin was limitless, while that of ferritin was suppressed when ferritin iron exceeded around 5 grams. We confrmed the pathway of iron from hemosiderin to ferritin in iron mobilization, and that from ferritin to hemosiderin in iron deposition. Thus, serum ferritin kinetics enabled us to be the frst to clinically clarify storage iron metabolism. However, life expectancies1-3) are shortened if patients with iron overload are not treated. To remove the overload, phlebotomy has been performed on patients with iron overload without anemia. However, the iron removal from anemia patients has proved diffcult even using the iron chelating agent desferrioxamine for intravenous use. After introducing a new iron chelating agent deferasirox for oral use, iron removal from patients with anemias noticeably improved. After around 2 decades, a radioimmunoas say method for serum ferritin was developed in 1972 by Addison et al. However, serum ferritin did not always accurately refect total iron stores, because it originated from tissue ferritin, not hemosiderin. Therefore, we attempted to develop a clinical method for determining hemosiderin iron by assessing serum ferritin based on assumptions suggested by the close metabolic relation ship between ferritin and hemosiderin. Table 1 Classifcation of iron status according to the level of iron stores A note on the criteria of our terminology: the term ?Normal iron stores? in this study denotes the level of iron stores between iron defciency and iron overload regardless of disease or iron distribution in the body. Generally, symptoms of iron overload appear when the serum ferritin level is above 1000 ng/ml. Iron defciency ?/+ symptom < Normal iron stores < Iron overload ?/+ symptom Serum ferritin ng/ml <12 250~500< Iron stores g <0. Patients other than #22 with blood loss and an uncertain transfusion record were excluded from this study. Serum ferritin assay kit Products of Fujirebio Incorporated (Tokyo, Japan) and Denka Seiken (Tokyo, Japan) were used. Methods Blood loss Detected by fecal immunochemical occult blood tests and macroscopic fndings. Serum ferritin It was performed as determined by an enzyme-immunoassay using chemical luminescence at Nagoya University Hospital and by one using latex agglutination at the National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center. Initial serum ferritin before iron removal was obtained by extrapolating the serum ferritin decrease curve to zero time. Iron removal rate We detected the iron balance by the return of serum ferritin to its previous level as a zero-sum of iron addition, and its removal in the course of iron removal therapy. Iron removal rates were calculated from the amount of transfusional iron during the days of iron balance. Patients were recommended to take a diet low in iron to minimize the effect of dietary iron absorption. Increasing component of serum ferritin We assumed that tissue ferritin iron was increased by taking iron out of hemosiderin in iron mobilization, and further assumed that the values of serum ferritin increase were proportional to the difference between the values before and after iron mobilization. The assumptions described above were suggested by the iron density gradient in homeostasis. Increasing component of serum ferritin = [initial serum ferritin serum ferritin after each amount (gram) of iron removal]? This formula was applicable to the condition in which serum ferritin decreased at a constant rate over a unit of time in iron mobilization.
The m ost com m on category is im m otile generic propranolol 40mg visa pulse pressure 86, with an average of 50% and a dif ference of 30% purchase propranolol 80 mg with mastercard blood pressure 50 30. As the observed dif ference exceeds this buy propranolol 40mg free shipping arrhythmia while pregnant, the results are discarded and two fresh slides are prepared and the sperm m otility re-estim ated. Sperm m otility estim ates in replicate counts of 200 sperm atozoa are: progressive, 37% and 28% ; non-progressive, 3% and 6% ; im m otile 60% and 66%. The m ost com m on category is im m otile, with an average of 63% and a dif ference of 6%. Com m ent: the total num ber of progressively m otile sperm atozoa in the ejaculate is of biological signi? This is obtained by m ultiplying the total num ber of sperm atozoa in the ejaculate (see Section 2. This test can provide a check on the m otility evaluation, since the percentage of dead cells should not exceed (within sam pling error) the percentage of im m otile sperm atozoa. The percentage of live sperm atozoa is assessed by identifying those with an intact cell m em brane, from dye exclusion or by hypotonic swelling. The dye exclusion m ethod is based on the principle that dam aged plasm a m em branes, such as those found in non-vital (dead) cells, allow entry of m em brane-im perm eant stains. The hypo-osm otic swelling test presum es that only cells with intact m em branes (live cells) will swell in hypotonic solutions. Sperm vitality should be assessed as soon as possible after liquefaction of the sem en sam ple, preferably at 30 m inutes, but in any case within 1 hour of ejacula tion, to prevent observation of deleterious effects of dehydration or of changes in tem perature on vitality. Vitality results should be assessed in conjunction with m otility results from the sam e sem en sam ple. Com m ent 2: the presence of a large proportion of vital but im m otile cells m ay be indicative of structural defects in the? It also perm its slides to be stored for re-evaluation and quality-control purposes (Bjorn dahl et al. Eosin?nigrosin: add 10g of nigrosin (colour index 50420) to the 100m l of eosin Y solution. Rem ove a 50-Pl aliquot of sem en and m ix with an equal volum e of eosin? nigrosin suspension. Rem ix the sem en sam ple before rem oving a replicate aliquot and m ixing with eosin?nigrosin and treating as in step 2 above. Exam ine im m ediately after drying, or later after m ounting with a perm anent non-aqueous m ounting m edium (see Section 2. Tally the num ber of stained (dead) or unstained (vital) cells with the aid of a laboratory counter. Evaluate 200 sperm atozoa in each replicate, in order to achieve an acceptably low sam pling error (see Box 2. Calculate the average and difference of the two percentages of vital cells from the replicate slides. If the difference between the percentages is acceptable, report the average percentage of vital sperm atozoa. If the difference is too high, m ake two new preparations from two fresh aliquots of the sem en sam ple and repeat the assessm ent (see Box 2. The nigrosin provides a dark background that m akes it easier to discern faintly stained sperm atozoa. Com m ent: the total num ber of m em brane-intact sperm atozoa in the ejaculate is of biological signi? Note: Som e com m ercially available eosin solutions are hypotonic aqueous solu tions that will stress the sperm atozoa and give false-positive results (Bjorndahl et al. Rem ove an aliquot of 5Pl of sem en and com bine with 5Pl of eosin solution on a m icroscope slide. Rem ix the sem en sam ple, rem ove a replicate aliquot, m ix with eosin and treat as in steps 2 and 3 above. Exam ine each slide, preferably with negative-phase-contrast optics (positive phase-contrast m akes faint pink heads dif? Tally the num ber of stained (dead) and unstained (vital) cells with the aid of a laboratory counter. Calculate the average and difference of the two percentages of vital cells from the replicate preparations. If the difference between the percentages is acceptable, report the average percentage vitality. If the difference is too high, m ake two new preparations from two new aliquots of sem en and repeat the assessm ent (see Box 2. Live sperm atozoa have white or light pink heads and dead sperm atozoa have heads that are stained red or dark pink. If the stain is lim ited to only a part of the neck region, and the rest of the head area is unstained, this is considered a ?leaky neck m em brane?, not a sign of cell death and total m em brane disintegration. This is obtained by m ultiplying the total num ber of sperm a tozoa in the ejaculate (see Section 2. Sperm atozoa with intact m em branes swell within 5 m inutes in hypo-osm otic m edium and all? W arm 1m l of swelling solution or 1m l of 1+1 (1:2) diluted m edium in a closed m icrocentrifuge tube at 37 ?C for 5 m inutes. Incubate at 37 ?C for exactly 5 m inutes or 30 m inutes (see above), then transfer a 10-Pl aliquot to a clean slide and cover with a 22m m?
Somatic mutations generated due to propranolol 40mg line arrhythmia jaw pain radiation propranolol 80 mg with visa prehypertension systolic, can cause papillary thyroid carcinomas purchase propranolol 80mg without prescription arteria jugularis externa. It was trialed in 30 patients with locally advanced or metastatic hereditary medullary thyroid cancer with germline mutation. Partial response was seen in 20 percent of patients and another 30 percent of patients maintained stable disease during treatment (172 days). Early results suggest that motesanib has some 131 effect in patients with advanced I-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer. Almost all of them (95%) involve T-to A transversion in nucleotide 1799 and result in a valine-to-glutamate substitution at residue 600 (V600E). It is not common in thyroid carcinoma in children, nor in carcinomas caused by exposure to radiation. In progressive papillary carcinoma minimal or partial response was shown in some patients but complete results are yet to be released. Functionally, these proteins are involved in cell growth and malignant transformation. These mutations are found in 10-15 % of papillary thyroid cancers and in 40-50 % follicular thyroid carcinomas. This mutation is present in 35% of follicular thyroid carcinoma and in a lesser extent in Hurthle-cell carcinoma and follicular adenoma. Molecular mechanisms involved in differentiated thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis. Cell signaling in carcinoma cells differences between healthy cells and transformed cells 4. Novel chemotherapy options for advanced thyroid tumors: small molecules offer great hope. Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Hungary Many of the major principles governing clinical endocrinology taken for granted today were established during the last 50 years. In fact, during this period, twelve individuals received or shared Nobel Prizes for discoveries directly related to endocrinology and hormone assays. This group can be expanded to 20 if we include Nobel Prizes given for discoveries of prostaglandins, growth factors and neurotransmitters. From the tremendous amount of information gathered during half a century, we have selected six topics that had a particular impact on the practice of endocrinology and therefore on hormone measurements. Laboratory evaluation of thyroid status centers on chemical measurements of thyroid gland secretory products present in the circulation, assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and measurement of related molecules that affect thyroid gland function, such as thyroid binding proteins and autoantibodies. The hinge region between these two domains contains a nuclear localization sequence. The carboxy-terminal region also contains multiple contact surfaces that are important for heterodimerization with its partner, retinoid X receptor as well as protein? protein interactions with co-repressors and co-activators. Due to the high technique requirements and cost of physical separations, most clinical laboratories routinely use direct analogue immunoassays for fT3 and fT4 measurements, which are typically performed on immunoassay platforms. Basic concepts and misconcepts in clinical and diagnostic endocrinology Nevertheless, these immunoassays are all binding protein dependent to some extent and thereby susceptible to various interferences and uncertainties. Accordingly, many researchers have questioned the accuracy, validity, and reliability of direct analogue immunoassays (2). The thyroid hormones T4 and T3 travel in the serum reversibly bound to transport proteins, which are synthesized in the liver. These proteins bind over 95% of the circulating hormone, the remaining 5% being carried primarily by lipoproteins. Changes in carrier protein concentrations can elicit changes in total thyroid hormone concentration in the absence of thyroid disease. These changes in circulating levels of T4 and T3 occur without concomitant changes in fT4 and fT3 concentrations. This occurs because the bound hormone serves as a reservoir for the biologically active free form, and dissociation of hormone from its binding protein occurs rapidly (3). This is accompanied by increases in total T4 and T3, whereas free T4 and T3 levels do not change. Genetic variants of transthyretin with increased affinity for T4 show increased concentrations of T4 but normal fT4. These individuals are euthyroid and have elevated T4 concentrations but normal fT4. These observations show that total thyroid hormone concentrations are influenced by many factors even in euthyroid individuals, and that measurement of free hormone is almost always preferable (4). It was proposed that such a short dissociation time could allow part of the albumin bound fraction to be available for tissue uptake. A few years later, it was shown that the very rapid and intensive uptake of circulating T4 by the liver was hard to explain based on the free hormone hypothesis. This theory was based on the existence of a specific mechanism in the microcirculation of tissues that was able to enhance the dissociation of protein bound hormones and drugs from their plasma binding proteins and therefore increase their availability for tissue uptake. This concept of bioavailability of protein bound hormones was vigorously and sometimes acrimoniously contested. It nevertheless gained credibility and soon started to appear (at least for steroid hormones) in major endocrinology textbooks. It is worth pointing out, however, that even based on the same data, the concept (and measurement) of ?bioavailable? thyroid hormones has never been adopted in 57 Kovacs L. Basic concepts and misconcepts in clinical and diagnostic endocrinology clinical practice.
We did not have the clinical history on these Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism likely unlikely patients purchase propranolol 80 mg on-line arrhythmia grand rounds, but results strongly supported the diagnosis of hypothyroidism order propranolol 80 mg with visa hypertension after pregnancy. Robertson: When do you recommend a dog be rechecked after initiation of thyroid replacement therapy? How long does it take for the biochemical and hematologic abnormalities to 80 mg propranolol amex hypertension hypokalemia resolve? Kintzer: Four to 6 weeks after starting therapy, I reevaluate the patient and run either a peak or trough total T4 to monitor therapy. If anemia or significant hypercholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia were present at time of diagnosis, I often recheck these as well. I check total T4 levels 4 to 6 weeks after a change of dosage or brand of supplement, and every 3 to 6 months during therapy. Scott-Moncrieff: When you first start treating a hypothyroid dog, some responses to therapy happen very quickly. Hopefully, within a couple of weeks, the dog will have an increase in activity level, but the hair coat might actually get worse before it gets better and the skin can take 3 to 6 months to normalize. Nelson: If hyperlipidemia is creating some of the clinical signs, I would recheck fasting serum triglycerides in a week. Robertson: How often do you recommend rechecking a hypothyroid dog once it is well regulated on replacement therapy? Feline Hyperthyroidism Feline hyperthyroidism was first recognized as a distinct clinical entity in 1979. It has been diagnosed with increasing frequency since that time and is now considered the most common endocrine disorder of cats. The underlying causes of hyperthyroidism are unknown, but risk factors, such as breed, a diet composed primarily of canned food, and the use of cat litter, have been suggested. Robertson: Do you think feline hyperthyroidism is more commonly diagnosed now than it used to be? Has the disease become more prevalent or have clinicians become better at recognizing hyperthyroidism earlier? We certainly see Feline Hyperthyroidism some cats where the diagnosis is made based on a screening geriatric Clinical Signs profile and the owners were not aware the cat was sick. Nelson: That depends on the severity of the hyperthyroidism at the time you see the cat. If they?re in the early stages, a lot won?t be found on physical examination other than the thyroid nodule. If they?re in the advanced stages, they can be thin and tachycardic in addition to having a large thyroid nodule. They might be a little tachycardic and may have a heart murmur or gallop rhythm, but I don?t commonly see cats with severe clinical signs. Robertson: Since measuring blood pressure is becoming more routine in veterinary practice, what do you find in hyperthyroid cats? This is probably because of earlier diagnosis and increased recognition of the white-coat effect. A diagnosis of hypertension should only be made after at least 2 elevated blood pressure measurements unless there is evidence of damage, such as retinal detachment. Kintzer: A recent study showed that about 20% of hyperthyroid cats that the issue we are faced with is were normotensive at the time of diagnosis developed hypertension after treatment for the hyperthyroidism. Blood pressure should, therefore, be deciding whether a hyperthyroid checked both before and during treatment. Robertson: What changes do you typically find in the minimum database be more clinically relevant to the of a hyperthyroid cat? The diagnostic dilemma is, do you analyze the liver or do you treat the hyperthyroidism and see what happens? Nelson: I think that routinely screening middle-aged to older cats for hyperthyroidism is fine and seems to have become common practice for many veterinarians. If the T4 is going up, odds are it is increasing because the cat has started to develop the disease. Robertson: Is there a relationship between the magnitude in the increase of the total T4 and the severity of clinical signs? When they get up over 10 mcg/dL Hyperthyroid Treatment or 12 mcg/dL, most of the ones that I?ve seen have been pretty symptomatic. Kintzer: I don?t think that it is true for every single case, but overall I think 1. Scott-Moncrieff: I would agree with the general rule, but I think there are increments exceptions. Robertson: For the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, a cat may or may not for the first 3 months; then every have clinical signs. Can an elevated T4 on its own confirm the tion; blood dyscrasias, including diagnosis of hyperthyroidism? Scott-Moncrieff: Yes, with the exception of patients whose result is just therapy to balance need to control above normal. Keep in mind that the reference interval should encompass hyperthyroidism while maintaining 95% of normal cats, so occasionally a normal cat may have a result that could reasonable renal function be right outside of this normal reference interval. Robertson: Does a total T4 within the normal reference interval rule out prior to iodine-131 therapy to hyperthyroidism? If not, how do you confirm or rule out a diagnosis of determine if renal function remains normal when hyperthyroidism is hyperthyroidism?
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Serum ferritin concentrations for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations 40mg propranolol with amex heart attack 720p. Sources of data this review summarises the genetics generic propranolol 80 mg blood pressure 40 year old woman, biochemistry and physiology of serum ferritin discount propranolol 80 mg amex pulse pressure stroke volume, discusses variables affecting the assay of ferritin, and examines how ferritin may be used to assess the iron status of populations. It builds on a review of earlier studies of serum ferritin concentration in health and disease by Worwood (1) and on several national and international reviews of using serum ferritin to determine iron status (2?4). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nutrition Laboratory has re cently prepared a Reference Manual for Laboratory Considerations Iron Status Indi cators for Population Assessments (2003), which covers all aspects of the processing of blood samples. Introduction the iron storage protein ferritin is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It con sists of a protein shell with a molecular mass of about 500 kDa composed of 24 sub units. The protein shell encloses a core of ferric-hydroxy-phosphate which can hold up to 4 000 atoms of iron. Proteins with a similar overall structure are found through out the plant and animal kingdom as well as in bacteria, although bacterial ferritin appears to have evolved separately as it has no amino acid sequence homology with animal ferritins. Bacterial ferritin from Escherichia coli for example, contains haem (about one per two subunits), as well as a core of non-haem iron. Ferritin is ancient in evolutionary terms and also has a long biochemical history. Since it was frst isolated (5) two main issues have dominated ferritin research: its structure, and the mecha nism of iron uptake and release. Recently the molecular biology of ferritin has come to the fore and the molecule has become a model for studies of how synthesis is regu lated at the level of genetic translation. A detailed review of the structure and func tion of ferritin has been published (6). The expressed gene for the H-sub unit is on chromosome 11 at 11q13 (8) and that for the L-subunit is on chromosome 19 at 19q13-ter. Most of the H sequences (about 15 copies) on a number of chromosomes appear to be processed pseudogenes ( i. For the expressed L-gene in the rat there are three in trons located between exons coding for the four major? Human H and L genes have a similar structure although the introns differ in size and sequence. The H-subunit is slightly larger than the L-subu nit (178 amino acids compared with 174 amino acids) but on electrophoresis in poly acrylamide gels under denaturing conditions the apparent differences in relative molecular mass are rather greater (21 kDa and 19 kDa). Human H and L sequences are only 55% homologous whereas the degree of homology between L-subunits and H-subunits from different species is of the order of 85% (6). The loop L and the N-terminal residues are on the outside of the assembled molecule of 24 subunits. A description of the three-dimensional structure of apofer ritin will be found in a recent review (6). The pI of ferritin is not signifcantly affected by its iron content, which varies from tissue to tissue and with the tissue iron content. Ferritin is purifed from tissues by taking advantage of three properties: the ability to withstand a temperature of 75 ?C; the high density of the iron-rich molecule, which allows concentration by ultracentrifugation; and crystallisation in the presence of cadmium sulphate. However it should be noted that, whereas ultracentrifugation tends to concentrate molecules rich in H-subunits, crystallisation from cadmium sulphate solution tends to give a lower overall recovery and selects molecules rich in L-subunits (11). Haemosiderin Ferritin is a soluble protein but is degraded to insoluble haemosiderin which accu mulates in lysosomes. Both ferritin and haemosiderin provide a store of iron that is available for protein and haem synthesis. Normally much of the stored iron in the body (about 1 g in men and less in pre-menstrual women and children) is present as ferritin, but during iron overload the proportion present as haemosiderin increases. Purifed preparations of ferritin always contain a small proportion of molecules in the form of dimers, trimers and other oligomers (12). Peptides extracted from preparations of haemosiderin have been found to react with antibodies to ferritin (14,15). In 1966 Drysdale and Munro (16) showed that the initial response of apoferritin synthesis to the administration of iron was by regulating translation rather than transcription. However, after administering iron there is an eventual increase in the rate of transcription of the L-subunit gene. This causes an increase in the ratio of L to H-subunits during ferritin synthesis after administering iron (18). This fnding may be of spe cial relevance to the origin of plasma ferritin (see below). Studies of rat liver cells (16) indicate that the half-life of a ferritin molecule is about 72 hours, and is extended by iron administration. The relationship between ferritin breakdown and formation of haemosiderin is unclear, as is the fate of the iron core after the degrada tion of the protein shell. Functions related to iron storage the major function of ferritin is clearly to provide a store of iron which may be used for haem synthesis when required. Iron uptake in vitro requires an oxidizing agent, and iron release requires a reducing agent (reviewed by Harrison and Arosio (6). There are differences in the rate of iron uptake between apoferritins with varying proportions of H and L-subunits; H-rich isoferritins having the highest rate of iron uptake in vitro (22). Such isoferritins are found in cells which either have a high requirement for iron for haem synthesis, such as nucleated red cells and cardiac muscle, or which do not appear to be involved in iron storage, such as lymphocytes. In the tissues where iron is stored, such as the liver and spleen, the ferritin contains mostly L-subunits. Recent studies with recombinant H24 and L24 molecules have demonstrated that the ferroxi dase activity of ferritin is a property of the H-subunit and that L24 molecules have lit tle ability to catalyse iron uptake (6).